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J. Fungi 2017, 3(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jof3010009

Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Novel Multi-Hydroxy Carotenoids in the Red Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous

1
Biosynthesis Group, Molecular Biosciences, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main 60438, Germany
2
Merck Stiftungsprofessur für Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main 60438, Germany
3
Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (BMLS), Goethe Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 15, Frankfurt am Main 60438, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Laurent Dufossé, Yanis Caro and Mireille Fouillaud
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pigments)
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Abstract

The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is an established platform for the synthesis of carotenoids. It was used for the generation of novel multi oxygenated carotenoid structures. This was achieved by a combinatorial approach starting with the selection of a β-carotene accumulating mutant, stepwise pathway engineering by integration of three microbial genes into the genome and finally the chemical reduction of the resulting 4,4’-diketo-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4,4’-diketo-β-carotene) and 4-keto-nostoxanthin (2,3,2’,3’-tetrahydroxy-4-monoketo-β-carotene). Both keto carotenoids and the resulting 4,4’-dihydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’,3’,4’-hexahydroxy-β-carotene) and 4-hydroxy-nostoxanthin (2,3,4,2’3’-pentahydroxy-β-carotene) were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Their molecular masses and fragmentation patterns allowed the unequivocal identification of all four carotenoids. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoid biosynthesis; 4,4’-dihydroxy-nostoxanthin; 4,4’-diketo-nostoxanthin; genetic engineering; HPLC separation; MS-MS spectra; Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous carotenoid biosynthesis; 4,4’-dihydroxy-nostoxanthin; 4,4’-diketo-nostoxanthin; genetic engineering; HPLC separation; MS-MS spectra; Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pollmann, H.; Breitenbach, J.; Wolff, H.; Bode, H.B.; Sandmann, G. Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Novel Multi-Hydroxy Carotenoids in the Red Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 9.

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