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J. Fungi 2015, 1(3), 332-344;

The Fungus among Us: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Ecological Modeling for Colombia

Public Health Analytics, British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 West 12th Avenue,Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4, Canada
Grupo de Microbiología, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Av. Calle 26 No. 51-20, Bogotá, D.C. 111321, Colombia
Catalina de Bedout, Luz Elena Cano, Corporación para Investigaciones Biológicas, Medellín, Antioquia 055428, Colombia
María Clara Noguera, Universidad Metropolitana, Barranquilla, Atlántico 080001, Colombia
Fabiola González, Cristian Anacona, Universidad del Cauca, Popayán, Cauca 111321, Colombia
Jairo Lizarazo, Hospital Universitario Erasmo Meoz, Cúcuta, Norte de Santander 540004, Colombia
María Inés Alvárez, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Valle del Cauca 025360, Colombia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John R. Perfect
Received: 25 August 2015 / Revised: 15 September 2015 / Accepted: 17 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [432 KB, uploaded 30 September 2015]   |  


The environmental isolation of Cryptococcus spp. is typically a difficult undertaking. Collecting samples in the field is costly in terms of travel, personnel time and materials. Furthermore, the recovery rate of Cryptococcus spp. may be very low, thereby requiring a large number of samples to be taken without any guarantee of success. Ecological niche modeling is a tool that has traditionally been used to forecast the distribution of plant and animal of species for biodiversity and conservation purposes. Here, we use it in a public health application to produce risk area maps for cryptococcal disease in Colombia. The Genetic Algorithm for Ruleset Production (GARP) was used to create models for Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) and Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii), based on environmental sampling and clinical records data recorded since 1987. These maps could be used to focus public health messaging related to cryptococcal disease, and it enables us to characterize the ecological niche for Cryptococcus in Colombia. We found that the OPEN ACCESS J. Fungi 2015, 1 333 ecological niche for C. gattii in Colombia is quite diverse, establishing itself in sub-tropical and temperate ecoregions within the country. This suggests that C. gattii is highly adaptive to different ecological conditions in Colombia and different regions of the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cryptococcus; cryptococcal disease; ecological niche modeling; risk mapping Cryptococcus; cryptococcal disease; ecological niche modeling; risk mapping

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Mak, S.; Vélez, N.; Castañeda, E.; Escandón, P.; Group, C.E.S. The Fungus among Us: Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii Ecological Modeling for Colombia. J. Fungi 2015, 1, 332-344.

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