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Sinusitis 2018, 3(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/sinusitis3010002

Prevalence and Determinants of Sinus Problems in Farm and Non-Farm Populations of Rural Saskatchewan, Canada

1
Division of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan
2
Jinnouchi Clinic, Diabetes Care Center, 6-2-3 Kuhonji, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 862-0976, Japan
3
Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
4
Department of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Royal University Hospital, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W8, Canada
5
College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, 104 Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 2Z4, Canada
6
School of Public Health, 3-276 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, University of Alberta, 11405-87 Ave, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada
7
Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Health Science Building, 104, Clinic Place, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 31 January 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract

Although sinus problems have long been recognized as the most common respiratory symptoms associated with agricultural work, there is a scarcity of recent studies and/or reliable estimates as to the true prevalence or risk factors of sinus problems related to farming. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sinus problems in farming and non-farming rural populations and further investigate the association of individual (for example life-style, occupational), contextual (e.g., environmental), and important covariates (e.g., age, sex) with sinus problems. A large-scale cross-sectional study was conducted in farm and non-farm residents of rural Saskatchewan, Canada. A logistic regression model based on a generalized estimating equations approach were fitted to investigate the risk factors of sinus problems. Sinus problems were reported by 2755 (34.0%) of the 8101 subjects. Farm residents were more likely to spend their first year of life on farm compared with non-farm residents, and indicated a significantly lower risk of sinus problems. Meanwhile, occupational exposure to solvent and mold were associated with an increased risk of sinus problems. Some health conditions such as allergy and stomach acidity/reflux, family history, and female sex were also related to a higher risk of sinus problems. Farm residents had a significantly lower risk of sinus problems than non-farm residents, likely due to the exposure to farm specific environments in their early life. View Full-Text
Keywords: rhinitis; occupational exposure; environmental exposure; farm; rural health; allergy; respiratory; birth weight; gastroesophageal reflux; sinusitis rhinitis; occupational exposure; environmental exposure; farm; rural health; allergy; respiratory; birth weight; gastroesophageal reflux; sinusitis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kajiwara-Morita, A.; Karunanayake, C.P.; Dosman, J.A.; Lawson, J.A.; Kirychuk, S.; Rennie, D.C.; Dyck, R.F.; Koehncke, N.; Senthilselvan, A.; Pahwa, P.; Saskatchewan Rural Health Study Research Team. Prevalence and Determinants of Sinus Problems in Farm and Non-Farm Populations of Rural Saskatchewan, Canada. Sinusitis 2018, 3, 2.

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