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Geriatrics 2017, 2(4), 30; doi:10.3390/geriatrics2040030

Obesity, Physical Fitness and Inflammation in the Elderly

1
School of Sport and Leisure—Viana do Castelo Polytechnic Institute, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal
2
Maia Polytechnic Institute, Portugal—Grupo de Investigação para o Desporto, Educação e Saúde (GIDES), 4475-690 Maia, Portugal
3
Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health and Human Development (CIDESD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 14 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
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Abstract

Among the elderly, obesity is paradoxically associated with a lower mortality risk. Thus, this study describes fitness levels by Body Mass Index (BMI) category and the associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Vitamin D levels with muscle strength, in community-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional study, with 1338 subjects having mean age of 78.3 years, were assessed in anthropometrics, muscle strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness. In a sub-sample, blood samples were collected and objective markers of inflammation were provided: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Vitamin D (25(OH) D). Obese women (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) showed significantly better results for grip strength than normal weight group (BMI between 18.5–24.9 kg/m2): 22.3 (7.0) vs. 20.0 (6.8); p = 0.002. After adjustment, higher levels of hs-CRP were an independent predictor of lower levels of grip strength (β = −0.213, 95% CI: −0.424; −0.002) and Vitamin D levels were positively associated with higher levels of muscle strength (β = 0.098, 95% CI: 0.008–0.189). The multivariate analysis found a significant and positive association between 25(OH) D and grip strength: (β = 0.098, 95% CI: 0.008–0.189). A positive pattern of higher levels of absolute strength among obese older subjects could have an important impact on morbidity and mortality risk, through the inverse association with acute inflammation and an increase in Vitamin D profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: adiposity; muscle strength; vitamin D; C-reactive protein adiposity; muscle strength; vitamin D; C-reactive protein
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, B.; Camões, M.; Simões, M.; Bezerra, P. Obesity, Physical Fitness and Inflammation in the Elderly. Geriatrics 2017, 2, 30.

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