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Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5020040

Resistance to Carbapenems in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Humans, Animals and Food

1
Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo 33011, Spain
2
Instituto de Investigación del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Oviedo 33011, Spain
3
European Food Safety Authority, Parma 43121, Italy
4
Departamento de Biología Funcional, Área de Microbiología, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo 33006, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 8 April 2018
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Abstract

Non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella enterica (NTS) are a leading cause of food-borne disease in animals and humans worldwide. Like other zoonotic bacteria, NTS have the potential to act as reservoirs and vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial drug resistance in different settings. Of particular concern is the resistance to critical “last resort” antimicrobials, such as carbapenems. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter, which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients), carbapenem resistance is still very rare in NTS. Nevertheless, it has already been detected in isolates recovered from humans, companion animals, livestock, wild animals, and food. Five carbapenemases with major clinical importance—namely KPC (Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase) (class A), IMP (imipenemase), NDM (New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase), VIM (Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase) (class B), and OXA-48 (oxacillinase, class D)—have been reported in NTS. Carbapenem resistance due to the production of extended spectrum- or AmpC β-lactamases combined with porin loss has also been detected in NTS. Horizontal gene transfer of carbapenemase-encoding genes (which are frequently located on self-transferable plasmids), together with co- and cross-selective adaptations, could have been involved in the development of carbapenem resistance by NTS. Once acquired by a zoonotic bacterium, resistance can be transmitted from humans to animals and from animals to humans through the food chain. Continuous surveillance of resistance to these “last resort” antibiotics is required to establish possible links between reservoirs and to limit the bidirectional transfer of the encoding genes between S. enterica and other commensal or pathogenic bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella enterica; multidrug resistance; carbapenems; carbapenemases; mobile genetic elements; plasmids; porins Salmonella enterica; multidrug resistance; carbapenems; carbapenemases; mobile genetic elements; plasmids; porins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Fernández, J.; Guerra, B.; Rodicio, M.R. Resistance to Carbapenems in Non-Typhoidal Salmonella enterica Serovars from Humans, Animals and Food. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 40.

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