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Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(4), 48; doi:10.3390/vetsci4040048

The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 334 Basseterre, St. Kitts, West Indies
2
Learning Sciences, Adtalem Global Education, 3005 Highland Parkway, Downers Grove, IL 60515, USA
3
Center for Teaching and Learning, Ross University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 266 Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies
4
Small Animal Hospital, University of Glasgow Veterinary School, 464 Bearsden Road, Bearsden G61 1QH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract

Some veterinary students experience elevated stress, anxiety, and depression resulting in disease and psychological changes. Elevated arousal, negative moods, and lack of interest can negatively affect performance and learning. Psychoacoustic music promotes calming effects using simple and slow piano sounds and can positively impact well-being and functioning. This pilot study assessed the effects of music on blood pressure, pulse, arousal, and mood during a canine physical examination laboratory. In an AB/BA crossover study, 17 students were randomly allocated to practice physical examination skills while listening to Through a Dog’s Ear, Volume 1. Psychological and physiologic data were collected. Nonparametric methods were used to test for significant differences in psychological and physiologic data and a linear mixed models approach was used to test for physiological differences. There were no significant baseline differences between the music and no music groups for DASS-21 depression, anxiety, or stress scores; however, there were significant time differences between pretest and posttest on arousal and mood as measured by the Profile of Mood Sates (POMS) Depression, Fatigue–Inertia, and Tension Anxiety subscales. Linear mixed models revealed no significant treatment effect on the pulse and diastolic blood pressure; however, there was a significant systolic blood pressure treatment effect. Future indications include repeating the study with a larger sample to examine longitudinal psychological and physiological benefits. View Full-Text
Keywords: music; psychoacoustic music; stress; mood and arousal; veterinary medical education music; psychoacoustic music; stress; mood and arousal; veterinary medical education
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Artemiou, E.; Gilbert, G.E.; Sithole, F.; Koster, L.S. The Effects of Music during a Physical Examination Skills Practice: A Pilot Study. Vet. Sci. 2017, 4, 48.

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