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Vet. Sci. 2016, 3(3), 16; doi:10.3390/vetsci3030016

Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochetes in the Americas

1
Department of Pediatrics, National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, 77030 TX, USA
2
Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, 77030 TX, USA
3
Departamento de Investigación en Entomología Médica, Instituto Conmemorativo Gorgas de Estudios de la Salud, P.O. Box 816-02593, City of Panama, Panama
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ulrike Munderloh
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 15 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Studies in Tick-Borne Diseases in Animals and Humans)
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Abstract

Relapsing fever spirochetes are tick- and louse-borne pathogens that primarily afflict those in impoverished countries. Historically the pathogens have had a significant impact on public health, yet currently they are often overlooked because of the nonspecific display of disease. In this review, we discuss aspects of relapsing fever (RF) spirochete pathogenesis including the: (1) clinical manifestation of disease; (2) ability to diagnose pathogen exposure; (3) the pathogen’s life cycle in the tick and mammal; and (4) ecological factors contributing to the maintenance of RF spirochetes in nature. View Full-Text
Keywords: relapsing fever spirochetes; Borrelia; Ornithodoros; argasid; ixodid relapsing fever spirochetes; Borrelia; Ornithodoros; argasid; ixodid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lopez, J.E.; Krishnavahjala, A.; Garcia, M.N.; Bermudez, S. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Spirochetes in the Americas. Vet. Sci. 2016, 3, 16.

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