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Vet. Sci. 2015, 2(4), 349-362; doi:10.3390/vetsci2040349

Metabolite Profiles of Male and Female Humboldt Penguins

Department of Comparative Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61802, USA
Metabolomics Center, Roy J. Carver Biotechnology Center, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony Blikslager
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 28 September 2015 / Accepted: 8 October 2015 / Published: 14 October 2015
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We examined 185 metabolites in 30 adult Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) nesting at the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in order to examine gender differences in metabolome profiles, particularly those involved in metabolism and energetics. The majority of the compounds identified were fatty (26% of total identified compounds), organic (19%), and amino (16%) acids. We were able to differentiate male and female penguins with 96.6% accuracy on the basis of 12 metabolites, most of which are involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. These included 2-oxoglutarate, erythronic acid, GABA, mannitol, sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, and serine and six metabolites present in higher concentrations in females compared to males (2-aminoadipic acid, O-phosphorylethanolamine, glycerol 2-phosphate, glycerol 3-phosphate, pantothenic acid, and creatinine). Of these, 2-oxoglutarate and glycerol 3-phosphate were key metabolites distinguishing gender. Our results indicated that male and female Humboldt Penguins were characterized by differing metabolic states. Such differences could be important to individual and brood survival in times of environmental stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: Humboldt Penguin; Spheniscus humboldti; metabolome; gender; 2-oxoglutarate; glycerol 3-phosphate Humboldt Penguin; Spheniscus humboldti; metabolome; gender; 2-oxoglutarate; glycerol 3-phosphate

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Levengood, J.M.; Schaeffer, D.J.; Ulanov, A.V. Metabolite Profiles of Male and Female Humboldt Penguins. Vet. Sci. 2015, 2, 349-362.

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