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Beverages 2017, 3(1), 8; doi:10.3390/beverages3010008

Elemental Profiles of Whisk(e)y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region

1
Department of Viticulture & Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Food Safety & Measurement Facility, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
3
Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95051, USA
Current address: Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dimitrios Zabaras
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 23 January 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [890 KB, uploaded 23 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Elemental fingerprints could provide an analytical approach to product differentiation and authentication, and have been used in the past for various distilled spirits, including brandy, gin, bourbon and tequila. However, a comparison of elemental differences between different whisk(e)y types, such as Bourbon and Scotch, is still missing. In this study we compare the elemental fingerprints of 68 commercial whiskies for differentiation by type (Bourbon, Tennessee, Scotch, Irish, Japanese) and region. Concentrations from sub-μg/L to mid-mg/L of 53 different elements were determined with inductively-coupled plasma—mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and microwave plasma—atomic emission spectroscopy (MP-AES), and used in subsequent statistical analyses. Significant differences in several elements were found for type, and allowed a classification according to whisk(e)y type. Elemental differences were also found for different production areas within Scotland, thus, providing further evidence that Scotch whiskies could be differentiated by elemental analysis. Major sources of elemental differences seem to be processing equipment (Cu, Fe, Ni, Cd, Sn, Mo, V) and raw materials, such as water (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Sr). View Full-Text
Keywords: whiskey; whisky; type; Scotch; Bourbon; elemental profile; trace metals whiskey; whisky; type; Scotch; Bourbon; elemental profile; trace metals
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hopfer, H.; Gilleland, G.; Ebeler, S.E.; Nelson, J. Elemental Profiles of Whisk(e)y Allow Differentiation by Type and Region. Beverages 2017, 3, 8.

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