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Beverages 2016, 2(3), 20; doi:10.3390/beverages2030020

Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production

Departament de Microbiologia i Ecologia, Universitat de València, Burjassot 46100, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shao Quan Liu
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [471 KB, uploaded 2 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Winemaking is a complex process involving the interaction of different microbes. The two main groups of microorganisms involved are yeasts and bacteria. The yeasts present in spontaneous fermentation may be divided into two groups: the Saccharomyces yeasts, particularly S. cerevisiae; and the non-Saccharomyces yeasts, which include members of the genera Rhodotorula, Pichia, Candida, Debaryomyces, Metschtnikowia, Hansenula, and Hanseniaspora. S. cerevisiae yeasts are able to convert sugar into ethanol and CO2 via fermentation. They have been used by humans for thousands of years for the production of fermented beverages and foods, including wine. Their enzymes provide interesting organoleptic characteristics in wine. Glycosidases with oenological implications have been widely reported in yeasts, bacteria, and fungi. β-Glucosidase activity is involved in the release of terpenes to wine, thus contributing to varietal aroma. α-Rhamnosidase, α-arabinosidase, or β-apiosidase activities have also been reported to contribute to the wine production process. Oenococcus oeni (a lactic acid bacteria present in wine) also has numerous glycosidases, and their activities contribute to the liberation of several aromatic compounds which contribute to floral and fruity wine characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-Saccharomyces yeasts; malolactic bacteria; wine; flavor; β-glucosidase; β-xylosidase non-Saccharomyces yeasts; malolactic bacteria; wine; flavor; β-glucosidase; β-xylosidase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Maicas, S.; Mateo, J.J. Microbial Glycosidases for Wine Production. Beverages 2016, 2, 20.

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