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Beverages 2015, 1(2), 104-126; doi:10.3390/beverages1020104

Cardiovascular Complications of Energy Drinks

1
Memorial Hermann Sports Medicine Institute, Division of Cardiology, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, LBJ General Hospital, 5656 Kelley St, UT Annex-Room 104, Houston, TX 77026-1967, USA
2
Division of Cardiology, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3
Division of Medicine, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 6431 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan Del Coso Garrigós
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 18 May 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 19 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Drinks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [551 KB, uploaded 19 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

Energy drinks (EDs) are gaining popularity every year with a broad consumer base including athletes, amateur competitors, and even those experiencing work-related fatigue. Evidence indicates that a significant number of individuals who consume EDs experience resultant morbidity and/or mortality, with a preponderance of cases involving teenagers and young adults. Adverse effects of ED consumption may occur in healthy persons, however certain individuals may be particularly susceptible to complications. At-risk populations include those of young age, the caffeine-naïve, or caffeine-sensitive, pregnant women, competitive athletes, and those with underlying cardiovascular disease. This paper summarizes the cardiovascular complications associated with ED use and provides suggestions on consumption of these drinks in various populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy drink; cardiovascular complications; caffeine; myocardial infarction; arrhythmia; QTc interval energy drink; cardiovascular complications; caffeine; myocardial infarction; arrhythmia; QTc interval
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Higgins, J.P.; Yarlagadda, S.; Yang, B. Cardiovascular Complications of Energy Drinks. Beverages 2015, 1, 104-126.

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