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Bioengineering 2016, 3(4), 25; doi:10.3390/bioengineering3040025

Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
2
Renal Regeneration Laboratory, VAGLAHS at Sepulveda, North Hills, CA 91343, USA
3
David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
4
Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA 99354, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gou-Jen Wang
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 9 October 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1746 KB, uploaded 9 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

The recent emergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major concern for worldwide policy makers as very few new antibiotics have been developed in the last twenty-five years. To prevent the death of millions of people worldwide, there is an urgent need for a cheap, fast and accurate set of tools and techniques that can help to discover and develop new antimicrobial drugs. In the past decade, microfluidic platforms have emerged as potential systems for conducting pharmacological studies. Recent studies have demonstrated that microfluidic platforms can perform rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests to evaluate antimicrobial drugs’ efficacy. In addition, the development of cell-on-a-chip and organ-on-a-chip platforms have enabled the early drug testing, providing more accurate insights into conventional cell cultures on the drug pharmacokinetics and toxicity, at the early and cheaper stage of drug development, i.e., prior to animal and human testing. In this review, we focus on the recent developments of microfluidic platforms for rapid antibiotics susceptibility testing, investigating bacterial persistence and non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA) bacteria, evaluating antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms and combinatorial effect of antibiotics, as well as microfluidic platforms that can be used for in vitro antibiotic toxicity testing. View Full-Text
Keywords: microfluidic platforms; antibiotic susceptibility; biofilm; bacterial persistence; non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA) bacteria; combinatorial effect; antibiotic toxicity; cell-on-a-chip; organ-on-a-chip microfluidic platforms; antibiotic susceptibility; biofilm; bacterial persistence; non-growing but metabolically active (NGMA) bacteria; combinatorial effect; antibiotic toxicity; cell-on-a-chip; organ-on-a-chip
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, J.; Hamon, M.; Jambovane, S. Microfluidics for Antibiotic Susceptibility and Toxicity Testing. Bioengineering 2016, 3, 25.

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