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Bioengineering 2016, 3(2), 16; doi:10.3390/bioengineering3020016

Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind

Idaho National Laboratory, 750 University Blvd., Energy Systems Laboratory, PO: Box: 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415, USA
Academic Editor: Gou-Jen Wang
Received: 24 April 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 22 June 2016
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Abstract

Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270 °C) and time (15–120 min) were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.). Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C) calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine. View Full-Text
Keywords: lodgepole pine; torrefaction; thermogravimetric analysis; proximate and ultimate composition lodgepole pine; torrefaction; thermogravimetric analysis; proximate and ultimate composition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tumuluru, J.S. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind. Bioengineering 2016, 3, 16.

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