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Bioengineering, Volume 1, Issue 3 (September 2014), Pages 114-153

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Research

Open AccessArticle Precisely Assembled Nanofiber Arrays as a Platform to Engineer Aligned Cell Sheets for Biofabrication
Bioengineering 2014, 1(3), 114-133; doi:10.3390/bioengineering1030114
Received: 7 May 2014 / Revised: 9 July 2014 / Accepted: 16 July 2014 / Published: 7 August 2014
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Abstract
A hybrid cell sheet engineering approach was developed using ultra-thin nanofiber arrays to host the formation of composite nanofiber/cell sheets. It was found that confluent aligned cell sheets could grow on uniaxially-aligned and crisscrossed nanofiber arrays with extremely low fiber densities. The [...] Read more.
A hybrid cell sheet engineering approach was developed using ultra-thin nanofiber arrays to host the formation of composite nanofiber/cell sheets. It was found that confluent aligned cell sheets could grow on uniaxially-aligned and crisscrossed nanofiber arrays with extremely low fiber densities. The porosity of the nanofiber sheets was sufficient to allow aligned linear myotube formation from differentiated myoblasts on both sides of the nanofiber sheets, in spite of single-side cell seeding. The nanofiber content of the composite cell sheets is minimized to reduce the hindrance to cell migration, cell-cell contacts, mass transport, as well as the foreign body response or inflammatory response associated with the biomaterial. Even at extremely low densities, the nanofiber component significantly enhanced the stability and mechanical properties of the composite cell sheets. In addition, the aligned nanofiber arrays imparted excellent handling properties to the composite cell sheets, which allowed easy processing into more complex, thick 3D structures of higher hierarchy. Aligned nanofiber array-based composite cell sheet engineering combines several advantages of material-free cell sheet engineering and polymer scaffold-based cell sheet engineering; and it represents a new direction in aligned cell sheet engineering for a multitude of tissue engineering applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Bioactive Surfaces by Functionalization of Electroactive and Surface-Active Block Copolymers
Bioengineering 2014, 1(3), 134-153; doi:10.3390/bioengineering1030134
Received: 29 May 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 14 August 2014 / Published: 20 August 2014
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Abstract
Biofunctional block copolymers are becoming increasingly attractive materials as active components in biosensors and other nanoscale electronic devices. We have described two different classes of block copolymers with biofuctional properties. Biofunctionality for block copolymers is achieved through functionalization with appropriate biospecific ligands. [...] Read more.
Biofunctional block copolymers are becoming increasingly attractive materials as active components in biosensors and other nanoscale electronic devices. We have described two different classes of block copolymers with biofuctional properties. Biofunctionality for block copolymers is achieved through functionalization with appropriate biospecific ligands. We have synthesized block copolymers of electroactive poly(3-decylthiophene) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate by atom transfer radical polymerization. The block copolymers were functionalized with the dinitrophenyl (DNP) groups, which are capable of binding to Immunoglobulin E (IgE) on cell surfaces. The block copolymers were shown to be redox active. Additionally, the triblock copolymer of α, ω-bi-biotin (poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly (styrene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide)) was also synthesized to study their capacity to bind fluorescently tagged avidin. The surface-active property of the poly(ethylene oxide) block improved the availability of the biotin functional groups on the polymer surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy observations confirm the specific binding of biotin with avidin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofabrication)
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