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Hydrology 2018, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology5010013

Dynamic Modeling of Surface Runoff and Storm Surge during Hurricane and Tropical Storm Events

1
Department of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, P.O. Box 9041, Mayagüez 00681, Puerto Rico
2
Caribbean Coastal Ocean Observing System, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, 67 Cavendish Road, Halifax, NS B3P 2J6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
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Abstract

Hurricane events combine ocean storm surge penetration with inland runoff flooding. This article presents a new methodology to determine coastal flood levels caused by the combination of storm surge and surface runoff. The proposed approach couples the Simulating Waves Nearshore model and the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model with the Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA) two-dimensional hydrologic model. Radar precipitation data in a 2D hydrologic model with a circulation model allows simulation of time and spatially varied conditions. The method was applied to study flooding scenarios occurring during the passage of Hurricane Georges (1998) on the east coast of Puerto Rico. The combination of storm surge and surface runoff produced a critical scenario, in terms of flood depth, at this location. The paper describes the data collection process, circulation and hydrologic models, their assemblage and simulation scenarios. Results show that peak flow from inland runoff and peak flow due to storm surge did not coincide in the coastal zone; however, the interaction of both discharges causes an aggravated hazardous condition by increasing flood levels beyond those obtained with storm surge penetration only. Linking of storm surge and hydrologic models are necessary when storm surge conditions occur simultaneously with high precipitation over steep and small coastal watersheds. View Full-Text
Keywords: tropical storm modeling; two-dimensional hydrologic models; ocean circulation models; coastal flooding; coastal hazards tropical storm modeling; two-dimensional hydrologic models; ocean circulation models; coastal flooding; coastal hazards
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Silva-Araya, W.F.; Santiago-Collazo, F.L.; Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Maldonado-Maldonado, J. Dynamic Modeling of Surface Runoff and Storm Surge during Hurricane and Tropical Storm Events. Hydrology 2018, 5, 13.

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