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Hydrology 2016, 3(4), 33; doi:10.3390/hydrology3040033

Seasonal Changes in the Inundation Area and Water Volume of the Tonle Sap River and Its Floodplain

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
2
Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Technology, Institute of Technology of Cambodia, P.O. Box 86, Phnom Penh 12156, Cambodia
3
Department of Geodetic Engineering, University of the Philippines (UP)-Diliman, Quezon City 1101, Philippines
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Angelica Tarpanelli, Luca Brocca, Mauro Rossi and Okke Batelaan
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floods and Landslide Prediction)
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Abstract

Flood pulses occur annually along the Tonle Sap River (TSR) due to the large volume of water flowing from Tonle Sap Lake (TSL), its tributaries, and the Mekong River (MR). This study describes the seasonal changes in inundation area and water volume in the floodplain along the TSR over three years. The method employed time series remote sensing images of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, the digital elevation model (DEM) of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), bathymetric data, and observed water level data. Adding normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a “third band” in the maximum likelihood classification (MLC) provided higher accuracy compared to thresholding NDVI and pure MLC (two bands) only. The results showed that the inundation area ranged from 123.8 to 3251.2 km2 (mean: 1028.5 km2) with overall accuracy of 96.9%. The estimated water volume ranged from 418.3 to 2223.9 million m3 (mean: 917.3 million m3) from the dry to wet season, respectively. Seasonally, the TSR floodplain accounted for up to 5.3% and 3.2% of the mean annual inflow and outflow of the TSR, respectively. In addition to the TSL water reservoir, the TSR and its floodplain exchanged and stabilized the flow of the MR and its downstream delta, respectively. Overall, the obtained results have enhanced our understanding of the TSR, supporting further studies on river connectivity and reversal flow in this study area. View Full-Text
Keywords: inundation; water volume; MODIS; Tonle Sap River; floodplain inundation; water volume; MODIS; Tonle Sap River; floodplain
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Siev, S.; Paringit, E.C.; Yoshimura, C.; Hul, S. Seasonal Changes in the Inundation Area and Water Volume of the Tonle Sap River and Its Floodplain. Hydrology 2016, 3, 33.

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