Next Article in Journal
Gene-Therapeutic Strategies Targeting Angiogenesis in Peripheral Artery Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Accreditation Standard Guideline Initiative for Tai Chi and Qigong Instructors and Training Institutions
Previous Article in Journal
Acupuncture as Add-On Treatment of the Positive, Negative, and Cognitive Symptoms of Patients with Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Are We Ready for a True Biopsychosocial–Spiritual Model? The Many Meanings of “Spiritual”
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Medicines 2018, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5020030

Biopsychosocial Assessment of Pain with Thermal Imaging of Emotional Facial Expression in Breast Cancer Survivors

1
Division of Research and Postgraduate Studies, Faculty of Psychology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City 04510, Mexico
2
National Medical Center 20 de Noviembre, Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado, Mexico City 03229, Mexico
3
CA Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, San Juan del Río City 76807, México
4
Interdisciplinary Center of Health Sciences, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Santo Tomás, Mexico City 11340, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mind-body Medicine Approaches)
Full-Text   |   PDF [11778 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Background: Recent research has evaluated psychological and biological characteristics associated with pain in survivors of breast cancer (BC). Few studies consider their relationship with inflammatory activity. Voluntary facial expressions modify the autonomic activity and this may be useful in the hospital environment for clinical biopsychosocial assessment of pain. Methods: This research compared a BC survivors group under integral treatment (Oncology, Psychology, Nutrition) with a control group to assess the intensity of pain, behavioral interference, anxiety, depression, temperament-expression, anger control, social isolation, emotional regulation, and alexithymia and inflammatory activity, with salivary interleukin 6 (IL-6). Then, a psychophysiological evaluation through repeated measures of facial infrared thermal imaging (IRT) and hands in baseline—positive facial expression (joy)—negative facial expression (pain)—relaxation (diaphragmatic breathing). Results: The results showed changes in the IRT (p < 0.05) during the execution of facial expressions in the chin, perinasal, periorbital, frontal, nose, and fingers areas in both groups. No differences were found in the IL-6 level among the aforementioned groups, but an association with baseline nasal temperature (p < 0.001) was observable. The BC group had higher alexithymia score (p < 0.01) but lower social isolation (p < 0.05), in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: In the low- and medium-concentration groups of IL-6, the psychophysiological intervention proposed in this study has a greater effect than on the high concentration group of IL-6. This will be considered in the design of psychological and psychosocial interventions for the treatment of pain. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; facial expression; IL-6; thermography; alexithymia; social support breast cancer; facial expression; IL-6; thermography; alexithymia; social support
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez Medina, D.A.; Domínguez Trejo, B.; Cortés Esteban, P.; Cruz Albarrán, I.A.; Morales Hernández, L.A.; Leija Alva, G. Biopsychosocial Assessment of Pain with Thermal Imaging of Emotional Facial Expression in Breast Cancer Survivors. Medicines 2018, 5, 30.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Medicines EISSN 2305-6320 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top