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Medicines 2017, 4(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines4040070

Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antifungal Activity of the Oleoresin Essential Oil of Protium amazonicum from Ecuador

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
2
Aromatic Plant Research Center, 615 St. George Square Court, Suite 300, Winston-Salem, NC 27103, USA
3
Saintoil S.A., Magnolias 57, Quito 17-22-20108, Pinchachas, Ecuador
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helen D. Skaltsa
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 23 September 2017
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Abstract

Background: Protium species (Burseraceae) have been used in the treatment of various diseases and conditions such as ulcers and wounds. Methods: The essential oil from the oleoresin of Protium amazonicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS, GC-FID, and chiral GC-MS. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil was screened for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Cryptococcus neoformans. Results: A total of 54 components representing 99.6% of the composition were identified in the oil. The essential oil was dominated by δ-3-carene (47.9%) with lesser quantities of other monoterpenoids α-pinene (4.0%), p-cymene (4.1%), limonene (5.1%), α-terpineol (5.5%) and p-cymen-8-ol (4.8%). Chiral GC-MS revealed most of the monoterpenoids to have a majority of levo enantiomers present with the exceptions of limonene and α-terpineol, which showed a dextro majority. P. amazonicum oleoresin oil showed promising activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC = 156 μg/mL. Conclusions: This account is the first reporting of both the chemical composition and enantiomeric distribution of the oleoresin essential oil of P. amazonicum from Ecuador. The oil was dominated by (−)-δ-3-carene, and this compound, along with other monoterpenoids, likely accounts for the observed antifungal activity of the oil. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oil composition; Protium amazonicum; Burseraceae; copal; breu; δ-3-carene; chiral gas chromatography; antifungal activity essential oil composition; Protium amazonicum; Burseraceae; copal; breu; δ-3-carene; chiral gas chromatography; antifungal activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Satyal, P.; Powers, C.N.; Parducci V., R.; McFeeters, R.L.; Setzer, W.N. Chemical Composition, Enantiomeric Distribution, and Antifungal Activity of the Oleoresin Essential Oil of Protium amazonicum from Ecuador. Medicines 2017, 4, 70.

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