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Medicines 2017, 4(3), 52; doi:10.3390/medicines4030052

β-Selinene-Rich Essential Oils from the Parts of Callicarpa macrophylla and Their Antioxidant and Pharmacological Activities

1
Department of Chemistry, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, pin code248 002, Uttarakhand, India
2
Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences and Humanities, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, pin code 263 145 Uttarakhand, India
3
Department of Medicine, College of Veterinary Sciences, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar, pin code 263 145 Uttarakhand, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Eleni Skaltsa and Gerhard Litscher
Received: 24 April 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract

Background: Callicarpa macrophylla (Varbenaceae) is a medicinal shrub and is traditionally used in India, China, and South Asia. Methods: The plant material was collected from lower Himalayan region of Uttarakhand in India. The essential oils from three different aerial parts were analyzed by GC-MS. Antioxidant activity, phenolic assay, and various pharmacological activities were determined by using existing methods which are generally practiced widely. Results: Over 51, 53, and 40 compounds were identified in C. macrophylla leaves essential oil (CMLEO), C. macrophylla pre mature seeds and fruits essential oil (CMEO-I) and C.macrophylla mature seeds and fruits essential oil (CMEO-II), respectively. These oils differ in relative contents of major compounds viz; β-selinene (37.51% in CMLEO, 44.66% in CMEO-I and 57.01% in CMEO-II), phyllocladene (9.76% in CMLEO, 5.80% in CMEO-I and 12.38% in CMEO-II), caryophelline oxide (7.34% in CMLEO, 8.74% in CMEO-I and 5.0% in CMEO-II), 9E-epi-caryophelline (6.23% in CMLEO, 1.27% in CMEO-I and 3.43% in CMEO-II), longipinocarvone (4.96% in CMLEO, 1.17% in CMEO-I and 2.0% in CMEO-II), and 1,8-cineole (2.23% in CMLEO, 3.10% in CMEO-I and 1.62% in CMEO-II). The oils exhibited good in vitro antioxidant activity. The maximum activity was found in CMEO-II with IC50 values 7.37 ± 0.11, 11.49 ± 0.87, 14.59 ± 0.18, 15.66 ± 0.03, and 17.49 ± 0.13 µl/mL. The essential oils showed qualitative and quantitative diversity in the makeup of essential oils constituents. The oils were found to exhibit anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activity on swiss albino mice compared to the standard drugs, viz; ibuprofen, paracetamol and indomethacin. Conclusion: It is inferred from the study that the plant parts can be used scientifically in traditional systems as folk herbal medicine. Furthermore, we have generated a database for future reference and judicious exploitation of these oils from their natural setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-selinene; phylocladene; pharmacology; Callicarpa macropylla; caryophillene oxide β-selinene; phylocladene; pharmacology; Callicarpa macropylla; caryophillene oxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chandra, M.; Prakash, O.; Kumar, R.; Bachheti, R.K.; Bhushan, B.; Kumar, M.; Pant, A.K. β-Selinene-Rich Essential Oils from the Parts of Callicarpa macrophylla and Their Antioxidant and Pharmacological Activities. Medicines 2017, 4, 52.

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