Heteromeles Arbutifolia, a Traditional Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease, Phytochemistry and Safety
AbstractBackground: This study examined the chemistry and safety of Heteromeles arbutifolia, also called toyon or California holly, which is a traditional California Indian food and treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: Plant extracts were examined by HPLC/MS, NMR and other techniques to identify compounds. Volunteers were recruited to examine the acute safety of the plant medicine using a standard short-term memory test. Results: The plant was found to contain icariside E4, dihydroxyoleanenoic acid, maslinic acid, betulin, trihydroxyoxo-seco-ursdienoic acid, catechin, vicenin-2, farrerol, kaempferide and tetrahydroxyoleanenoic acid. These compounds are anti-inflammatory agents that may protect the blood-brain barrier and prevent inflammatory cell infiltration into the brain. The dried berries were ingested by six volunteers to demonstrate the safety of the medicine. Conclusion: The plant medicine was found to contain several compounds that may be of interest in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The plant medicine was found to be safe. View Full-Text
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Wang, X.; Dubois, R.; Young, C.; Lien, E.J.; Adams, J.D. Heteromeles Arbutifolia, a Traditional Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease, Phytochemistry and Safety. Medicines 2016, 3, 17.
Wang X, Dubois R, Young C, Lien EJ, Adams JD. Heteromeles Arbutifolia, a Traditional Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease, Phytochemistry and Safety. Medicines. 2016; 3(3):17.Chicago/Turabian Style
Wang, Xiaogang; Dubois, Raphael; Young, Caitlyn; Lien, Eric J.; Adams, James D. 2016. "Heteromeles Arbutifolia, a Traditional Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease, Phytochemistry and Safety." Medicines 3, no. 3: 17.
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