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Toxics 2018, 6(3), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030037

Biomonitoring of Urinary Benzene Metabolite SPMA in the General Population in Central Italy

1
INAIL Research, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, Via di Fontana Candida 1, 00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy
2
Lazio Regional Health Service, Department of Epidemiology, Via Cristoforo Colombo, 112, 00147 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers of Environmental Toxicants)
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Abstract

Background: Benzene is an important component of cigarette smoke and car exhaust. Products containing benzene in concentrations greater than 0.1% are prohibited in Europe, but 1% of benzene is still allowed in gasoline. The purpose of the study was to assess the levels of urine benzene biomarkers in a sample of the general population not occupationally exposed to benzene, resident in the period 2013–2014 in Central Italy, compared to other groups. Methods: The urinary levels of the benzene metabolites S-phenyl-mercapturic acid (SPMA) and cotinine (nicotine metabolite) were determined by means of HPLC with mass spectrometric detection in 1076 subjects. Results: The median SPMA value in smokers was 1.132 µg/g of creatinine while in non-smokers it was 0.097 µg/g of creatinine, and the 95th percentile results were seven times higher. Conclusion: The main source of benzene exposure in the studied population was active smoking, however, non-smokers were also exposed to airborne benzene concentrations. The concentration ranges found in this study can be used as a background reference for occupational exposure assessment to benzene by means of SPMA biomonitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: human biomonitoring; urine; non-occupational exposure; S-phenyl-mercapturic acid; HPLC-MS/MS human biomonitoring; urine; non-occupational exposure; S-phenyl-mercapturic acid; HPLC-MS/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tranfo, G.; Pigini, D.; Paci, E.; Bauleo, L.; Forastiere, F.; Ancona, C. Biomonitoring of Urinary Benzene Metabolite SPMA in the General Population in Central Italy. Toxics 2018, 6, 37.

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