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Evaluating the Joint Toxicity of Two Benzophenone-Type UV Filters on the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with Response Surface Methodology

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, E1A 07-03, Singapore 117576, Singapore
2
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
NUS Environmental Research Institute, National University of Singapore, 5A Engineering Drive 1, #02-01, Singapore 117411, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity of Chemical Mixtures)
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Abstract

The widespread occurrence of benzophenone-type ultraviolet (UV) filter has raised the public concerns over the ecotoxicological effects of these chemicals. The present study assessed the joint toxicity of two representative benzophenones, benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3), on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using response surface methodologies (RSM). Specific growth rate and photosynthetic pigments were used as endpoints to evaluate the toxic effects. Generally, exposure to the combined BP-1 and BP-3 negatively affected cell growth and pigments production, with higher inhibitions at higher exposure concentrations. The simultaneous reduction in growth rate and pigments contents indicated that BP-1 and BP-3 regulated the growth of the tested alga by affecting the photosynthesis process. Results also showed that second order polynomial regression models fitted well with experimental results for all endpoints. The obtained regression models further indicated that the effects of the combination stemmed significantly from the linear concentration of BP-1 and BP-3. The overall results demonstrated that RSM could be a useful tool in ecotoxicological studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzophenone-1; benzophenone-3; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; response surface methodology; joint toxicity benzophenone-1; benzophenone-3; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; response surface methodology; joint toxicity
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Mao, F.; He, Y.; Gin, K.Y.-H. Evaluating the Joint Toxicity of Two Benzophenone-Type UV Filters on the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with Response Surface Methodology. Toxics 2018, 6, 8.

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