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Toxics 2016, 4(1), 3; doi:10.3390/toxics4010003

Metal and Microelement Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration in Early Life Permethrin-Treated Rats

1
Unit of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III da Varano, 62032 Camerino, MC, Italy
2
Unit of Chemistry, School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, Via S. Agostino 1, 62032 Camerino, MC, Italy
3
Computer Science Division, School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, Via del Bastione 1, 62032 Camerino, MC, Italy
4
Unit of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III da Varano, 62032 Camerino, MC, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos A. Damalas
Received: 29 November 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 20 January 2016 / Published: 29 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [988 KB, uploaded 29 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Hair is a non-invasive biological material useful in the biomonitoring of trace elements because it is a vehicle for substance excretion from the body, and it permits evaluating long-term metal exposure. Here, hair from an animal model of neurodegeneration, induced by early life permethrin treatment from the sixth to 21th day of life, has been analyzed with the aim to assess if metal and microelement content could be used as biomarkers. A hair trace element assay was performed by the ICP-MS technique in six- and 12-month-old rats. A significant increase of As, Mg, S and Zn was measured in the permethrin-treated group at 12 months compared to six months, while Si and Cu/Zn were decreased. K, Cu/Zn and S were increased in the treated group compared to age-matched controls at six and 12 months, respectively. Cr significantly decreased in the treated group at 12 months. PCA analysis showed both a best difference between treated and age-matched control groups at six months. The present findings support the evidence that the Cu/Zn ratio and K, measured at six months, are the best biomarkers for neurodegeneration. This study supports the use of hair analysis to identify biomarkers of neurodegeneration induced by early life permethrin pesticide exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: permethrin; early life exposure; rat; hair; metals; microelements permethrin; early life exposure; rat; hair; metals; microelements
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nasuti, C.; Ferraro, S.; Giovannetti, R.; Piangerelli, M.; Gabbianelli, R. Metal and Microelement Biomarkers of Neurodegeneration in Early Life Permethrin-Treated Rats. Toxics 2016, 4, 3.

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