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Toxics 2015, 3(1), 20-62; doi:10.3390/toxics3010020

Toxicity of Glutathione-Binding Metals: A Review of Targets and Mechanisms

LaTMA Laboratory for Analytical Toxicology and Metabonomics, Department of Health Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano at "Ospedale San Paolo" v. A. di Rudinì 8, I-20142 Milano, Italy
Academic Editor: Wayne Briner
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 4 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2015 / Published: 26 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Heavy Metals Toxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [661 KB, uploaded 26 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

Mercury, cadmium, arsenic and lead are among priority metals for toxicological studies due to the frequent human exposure and to the significant burden of disease following acute and chronic intoxication. Among their common characteristics is chemical affinity to proteins and non-protein thiols and their ability to generate cellular oxidative stress by the best-known Fenton mechanism. Their health effects are however diverse: kidney and liver damage, cancer at specific sites, irreversible neurological damages with metal-specific features. Mechanisms for the induction of oxidative stress by interaction with the cell thiolome will be presented, based on literature evidence and of experimental findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: arsenic; cadmium; EdAG; enzymes; glutathione; lead; mass spectrometry; mechanism; metallothionein; mercury; nanoparticles arsenic; cadmium; EdAG; enzymes; glutathione; lead; mass spectrometry; mechanism; metallothionein; mercury; nanoparticles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rubino, F.M. Toxicity of Glutathione-Binding Metals: A Review of Targets and Mechanisms. Toxics 2015, 3, 20-62.

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