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Foods 2017, 6(7), 50; doi:10.3390/foods6070050

Production of Cow’s Milk Free from Beta-Casein A1 and Its Application in the Manufacturing of Specialized Foods for Early Infant Nutrition

1
Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Enfermedades Crónicas (CINDETEC) A.C., Avenida Jurica 122, Parque Industrial Querétaro, Querétaro 76220, Mexico
2
Departamento de Investigación y Desarrollo, Nucitec, S.A. de C.V., Avenida Jurica 116, Parque Industrial Querétaro, Querétaro 76220, Mexico
3
DIPA, Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro C.U., Cerro de las Campanas s/n, Las Campanas, Querétaro 76010, Mexico
4
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Campus Juriquilla, Avenida de las Ciencias s/n, Juriquilla, Querétaro 76230, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Esther Sendra
Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract

Beta-casein (BC) is frequently expressed as BC A2 and BC A1 in cow’s milk. Gastrointestinal digestion of BC A1 results in the release of the opioid peptide beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) which is less likely to occur from BC A2. This work was aimed to produce milk containing BC A2 with no BC A1 (BC A2 milk) using genetically selected CSN2 A2A2 Jersey cows. Additionally, we aimed to develop an infant formula (IF) suitable for healthy full-term infants during the first six months of life based on BC A2 milk. The concentration of BCM7 released from BC A2 IF, from commercially available IFs as well as from human milk and raw cow’s milk was evaluated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID). BC A2 IF presented the lowest mean relative abundance of BC A1 (IF 1 = 0.136 ± 0.010), compared with three commercially available IFs (IF 2 = 0.597 ± 0.020; IF 3 = 0.441 ± 0.014; IF 4 = 0.503 ± 0.011). Accordingly, SGID of whole casein fraction from BC A2 IF resulted in a significantly lower release of BCM7 (IF 1 = 0.860 ± 0.014 µg/100 mL) compared to commercially available IFs (IF 2 = 2.625 ± 0.042 µg/100 mL; IF 3 = 1.693 ± 0.012 µg/100 mL; IF 4 = 1.962 ± 0.067 µg/100 mL). Nevertheless, BCM7 levels from BC A2 IF were significantly higher than those found in SGID hydrolysates of BC A2 raw milk (0.742 ± 0.008 µg/100 mL). Interestingly, results showed that BCM7 was also present in human milk in significantly lower amounts (0.697 ± 0.007 µg/100 mL) than those observed in IF 1 and BC A2 milk. This work demonstrates that using BC A2 milk in IF formulation significantly reduces BCM7 formation during SGID. Clinical implications of BC A2 IF on early infant health and development need further investigations. View Full-Text
Keywords: cow’s milk; infant formula; beta-casein A2; beta-casomorphin 7 cow’s milk; infant formula; beta-casein A2; beta-casomorphin 7
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Duarte-Vázquez, M.Á.; García-Ugalde, C.; Villegas-Gutiérrez, L.M.; García-Almendárez, B.E.; Rosado, J.L. Production of Cow’s Milk Free from Beta-Casein A1 and Its Application in the Manufacturing of Specialized Foods for Early Infant Nutrition. Foods 2017, 6, 50.

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