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Foods 2017, 6(3), 20; doi:10.3390/foods6030020

Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

1
Alchemy Aromatics LLC, 621 Park East Blvd., New Albany, IN 47150, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
3
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Sana’a University, P.O. Box 18084, Sana’a, Yemen
4
Pharmacognosy Department, Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy, Albaha University, P.O. Box 1988, Al Baha, Saudi Arabia
5
Department of Clinical pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical sciences, The Hashemite University, P.O. Box 330127, Zarqa 13133, Jordan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Esther Sendra
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 5 March 2017
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Abstract

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oil; chemical composition; chiral gas chromatography; enantiomeric distribution; mass spectrometry; hierarchical cluster analysis; antifungal; cytotoxic; enzyme inhibition essential oil; chemical composition; chiral gas chromatography; enantiomeric distribution; mass spectrometry; hierarchical cluster analysis; antifungal; cytotoxic; enzyme inhibition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Satyal, P.; Jones, T.H.; Lopez, E.M.; McFeeters, R.L.; Ali, N.A.A.; Mansi, I.; Al-kaf, A.G.; Setzer, W.N. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis. Foods 2017, 6, 20.

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