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Foods 2016, 5(3), 51; doi:10.3390/foods5030051

Calcium in Gluten-Free Life: Health-Related and Nutritional Implications

Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima St., 10, Olsztyn 10-748, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuela Mariotti
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 15 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [530 KB, uploaded 15 July 2016]   |  


Calcium deficiency and metabolic bone diseases are a frequent co-morbidity of coeliac disease (CD). Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only effective treatment of CD. However, CD patients on the strict GFD consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium. In this review, the main etiological factors responsible for calcium deficiency in CD were presented. Additionally, the research on the application of calcium supplements in the gluten-free breadmaking was reviewed, and its effect on the technological and sensory properties of baked products was indicated. Calcium-fortified gluten-free products could increase the calcium content in the diet of CD patients, supplying the amount of calcium they need for prophylactic or therapeutic use. Apart from this, the consumption of the naturally GF products as well as functional ingredients beneficially affecting calcium absorption need to be encouraged. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium supplements; gluten-free diet; coeliac disease; malnutrition; intestinal inflammation; bone alterations; calcium absorption; breadmaking calcium supplements; gluten-free diet; coeliac disease; malnutrition; intestinal inflammation; bone alterations; calcium absorption; breadmaking

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Krupa-Kozak, U.; Drabińska, N. Calcium in Gluten-Free Life: Health-Related and Nutritional Implications. Foods 2016, 5, 51.

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