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Foods 2016, 5(1), 19; doi:10.3390/foods5010019

Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient

Natural Products Group, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK
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Academic Editor: Christopher J. Smith
Received: 17 December 2015 / Revised: 15 February 2016 / Accepted: 8 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
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Abstract

There is increasing emphasis on reformulating processed foods to make them healthier. This study for the first time comprehensively investigated the effects of fortifying bread (containing oil as an ingredient) with freeze-dried vegetables on its nutritional and physico-chemical attributes. Breads fortified with carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were assessed for nutrition, antioxidant potential, storage life, shelf stability, textural changes and macronutrient oxidation. Furthermore, using an in vitro model the study for the first time examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during human gastro-intestinal digestion. As expected, adding vegetables improved the nutritional and antioxidant properties of bread. Beetroot and broccoli significantly improved bread storage life. None of the vegetables significantly affected bread textural changes during storage compared to the control. Lipid oxidation in fresh bread was significantly reduced by all four types of vegetables whilst protein oxidation was lowered by beetroot, carrot and broccoli. The vegetables demonstrated varying effects on macronutrient oxidation during gastro-intestinal digestion. Beetroot consistently showed positive effects suggesting its addition to bread could be particularly beneficial. View Full-Text
Keywords: bread; vegetables; oxidative stability; oil; storage properties; digestion bread; vegetables; oxidative stability; oil; storage properties; digestion
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ranawana, V.; Raikos, V.; Campbell, F.; Bestwick, C.; Nicol, P.; Milne, L.; Duthie, G. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part 1: Breads Containing Oil as an Ingredient. Foods 2016, 5, 19.

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