Next Article in Journal
Increased Foraging in Outdoor Organic Pig Production—Modeling Environmental Consequences
Previous Article in Journal
Reliability of Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Measuring Macular Pigment Optical Density among Preadolescent Children
Previous Article in Special Issue
Infant Milk Formulas: Effect of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Powdered Products towards Autoxidation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Foods 2015, 4(4), 605-621; doi:10.3390/foods4040605

Analysis of Naturally Occurring Steroid Hormones in Infant Formulas by HPLC-MS/MS and Contribution to Dietary Intake

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nazanin Zand
Received: 24 July 2015 / Revised: 15 October 2015 / Accepted: 16 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant and Child Nutrition and Foods)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [544 KB, uploaded 22 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

Milk is a natural fluid and as such contains small amounts of naturally occurring steroids. Human milk is recommended as the optimal source of nutrients for infants and young children, and it has been associated to several short- and long-term benefits. For this reason, its composition is used as a reference for designing infant formulas. However, the available information on the hormonal levels of these dairy products is scarce, and it is usually limited to estradiol and estrone. In the present study, six natural sex hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and androstenedione) have been extracted from sixteen milk-based infant formulas and analyzed with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The purpose of this research was to quantify natural steroid hormones in various infant formulas, to provide food and nutrition practitioners with information to estimate intakes in children. In addition, data found in the literature was used for comparison. The findings suggest that there are certain similarities between bovine milk and dairy products for infants. Furthermore, the detected levels were in general lower than those observed in human milk and/or colostrum. The reported results represent a valuable addition to the current knowledge on natural hormone content of infant foods. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant formula; steroid hormone; estrogen; progestogen; androgen; breast milk; bovine milk; daily intake; LC-MS/MS infant formula; steroid hormone; estrogen; progestogen; androgen; breast milk; bovine milk; daily intake; LC-MS/MS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Barreiro, R.; Regal, P.; Díaz-Bao, M.; Fente, C.A.; Cepeda, A. Analysis of Naturally Occurring Steroid Hormones in Infant Formulas by HPLC-MS/MS and Contribution to Dietary Intake. Foods 2015, 4, 605-621.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Foods EISSN 2304-8158 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top