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Open AccessCommunication
Foods 2014, 3(4), 586-604; doi:10.3390/foods3040586

Antioxidant Generation during Coffee Roasting: A Comparison and Interpretation from Three Complementary Assays

1
Institute of Chemistry and Biological Chemistry, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Einsiedlerstrasse 31, CH-8820 Wädenswil, Switzerland
2
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004 Guangxi, China
3
AG, Gupfenstrasse 5, 9240 Uzwil, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2014 / Revised: 1 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 12 November 2014
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Abstract

Coffee is a major source of dietary antioxidants; some are present in the green bean, whereas others are generated during roasting. However, there is no single accepted analytical method for their routine determination. This paper describes the adaption of three complementary assays (Folin-Ciocalteu (FC), ABTS and ORAC) for the routine assessment of antioxidant capacity of beverages, their validation, and use for determining the antioxidant capacities of extracts from coffee beans at different stages in the roasting process. All assays showed a progressive increase in antioxidant capacity during roasting to a light roast state, consistent with the production of melanoidins having a higher antioxidant effect than the degradation of CGAs. However, the three assays gave different numbers for the total antioxidant capacity of green beans relative to gallic acid (GA), although the range of values was much smaller when chlorogenic acid (CGA) was used as reference. Therefore, although all three assays indicated that there was an increase in antioxidant activity during coffee roasting, and the large differences in responses to GA and CGA illustrate their different sensitivities to different types of antioxidant molecule. View Full-Text
Keywords: coffee; antioxidant assays; Folin-Ciocalteu; ABTS; ORAC, flow injection analysis coffee; antioxidant assays; Folin-Ciocalteu; ABTS; ORAC, flow injection analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Opitz, S.E.W.; Smrke, S.; Goodman, B.A.; Keller, M.; Schenker, S.; Yeretzian, C. Antioxidant Generation during Coffee Roasting: A Comparison and Interpretation from Three Complementary Assays. Foods 2014, 3, 586-604.

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