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Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder
Dairy & Functional Foods Research Unit, Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA
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Received: 24 September 2013; in revised form: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
Abstract: Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) are commonly used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile compounds in various dairy products, but conditions have to be adjusted to maximize release while not generating new compounds that are absent in the original sample. Queso Fresco, a fresh non-melting cheese, may be heated at 60 °C for 30 min; in contrast, compounds are produced in milk when exposed to light and elevated temperatures, so milk samples are heated as little as possible. Products such as dehydrated whey protein are more stable and can be exposed to longer periods (60 min) of warming at lower temperature (40 °C) without decomposition, allowing for capture and analysis of many minor components. The techniques for determining the volatiles in dairy products by SPME and GC-MS have to be optimized to produce reliable results with minimal modifications and analysis times.
Keywords: GC-MS; milk; Queso Fresco; SPME; whey powder
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Tunick, M.H.; Iandola, S.K.; Van Hekken, D.L. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder. Foods 2013, 2, 534-543.
Tunick MH, Iandola SK, Van Hekken DL. Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder. Foods. 2013; 2(4):534-543.
Tunick, Michael H.; Iandola, Susan K.; Van Hekken, Diane L. 2013. "Comparison of SPME Methods for Determining Volatile Compounds in Milk, Cheese, and Whey Powder." Foods 2, no. 4: 534-543.