Dent. J. 2014, 2(3), 85-97; doi:10.3390/dj2030085
Review

The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis against Four Oral Pathogens: A Review

1,4email, 2,4email, 3email, 3email, 4email and 4,* email
Received: 15 May 2014; Accepted: 18 June 2014 / Published: 21 July 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This study screened the available evidence for the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of propolis, a natural herbal resin bee product, against a selection of three bacterial species of relevance to oral diseases. For this purpose, papers dealing with laboratory studies assessing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) or the agar diffusion method to analyze the antimicrobial properties of propolis on three oral pathogens (S. mutans, P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum) and a yeast (C. albicans) are reviewed. Overall, a positive antimicrobial effect could be shown. However, when compared to the commonly used control substances (e.g., specific antibiotics, antiseptics and antifungals), propolis appeared less effective, depending on the bacterial strain, and required higher concentrations than the control substances, in order to show a measurable effect. Nevertheless, propolis as a natural herbal resin bee product can be considered as a natural antiseptic agent within the range of other herbal products, like sanguinarine. Therefore, it may be a valuable compound of non-synthetic, natural origin for patients seeking complementary agents and alternatives for “hard” chemicals.
Keywords: propolis; antimicrobial activity; biofilm; in vitro; caries; periodontitis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Waldner-Tomic, N.M.; Vanni, R.; Belibasakis, G.N.; Thurnheer, T.; Attin, T.; Schmidlin, P.R. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis against Four Oral Pathogens: A Review. Dent. J. 2014, 2, 85-97.

AMA Style

Waldner-Tomic NM, Vanni R, Belibasakis GN, Thurnheer T, Attin T, Schmidlin PR. The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis against Four Oral Pathogens: A Review. Dentistry Journal. 2014; 2(3):85-97.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Waldner-Tomic, Nadine M.; Vanni, Rosmarie; Belibasakis, Georgios N.; Thurnheer, Thomas; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R. 2014. "The in Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of Propolis against Four Oral Pathogens: A Review." Dent. J. 2, no. 3: 85-97.

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