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Photonics 2017, 4(2), 25; doi:10.3390/photonics4020025

Optimization and Characterization of High-Harmonic Generation for Probing Solid Density Plasmas

1
GoLP/Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Laboratoire d’Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-Paristech, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7639, 828 boulevard des Maréchaux, 91128 Palaiseau, France
3
Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 20 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme UV Lasers: Technologies and Applications)
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Abstract

The creation of high energy density plasma states produced during laser–solid interaction on a sub-picosecond timescale opens a way to create astrophysical plasmas in the lab to investigate their properties, such as the frequency-dependent refractive index. Available probes to measure absorption and phase-changes given by the complex refractive index of the plasma state are extreme-UV (EUV) and soft X-ray (XUV) ultra-short pulses from high harmonic generation (HHG). For demanding imaging applications such as single-shot measurements of solid density plasmas, the HHG probe has to be optimized in photon number and characterized in intensity and wavefront stability from shot-to-shot. In an experiment, a coherent EUV source based on HHG driven by a compact diode-pumped laser is optimized in photons per pulse for argon and xenon, and the shot-to-shot intensity stability and wavefront changes are characterized. The experimental results are compared to an analytical model estimating the HHG yield, showing good agreement. The obtained values are compared to available data for solid density plasmas to confirm the feasibility of HHG as a probe. View Full-Text
Keywords: XUV; high-harmonic generation; high energy density physics; diode-pumped lasers; pump-probe XUV; high-harmonic generation; high energy density physics; diode-pumped lasers; pump-probe
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Koliyadu, J.C.P.; Künzel, S.; Wodzinski, T.; Keitel, B.; Duarte, J.; Williams, G.O.; João, C.P.; Pires, H.; Hariton, V.; Galletti, M.; Gomes, N.; Figueira, G.; Dias, J.M.; Lopes, N.; Zeitoun, P.; Plönjes, E.; Fajardo, M. Optimization and Characterization of High-Harmonic Generation for Probing Solid Density Plasmas. Photonics 2017, 4, 25.

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