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Processes 2018, 6(9), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6090159

The Seepage Control of the Tunnel Excavated in High-Pressure Water Condition Using Multiple Times Grouting Method

1
State Key Laboratory of Mining Disaster Prevention and Control, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
2
Department of Mining Engineering, College of Mining and Safety Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
3
Department of Geotechinical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
4
Department of Underground Engineering, College of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
5
Kumagai Gumi Company Limited, Tokyo 162-0821, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract

Groundwater can cause many hazardous problems when a tunnel is excavating. Seepage force acting on the support structure and the tunnel surface cannot be negligible. Under high groundwater table condition, the seepage situation becomes more complex and it is more difficult to control the leakage of groundwater to flow into a tunnel. In the paper, a multiple times grouting method is proposed, and the mechanical deformation behavior of surrounding rock is analyzed using the FLAC3D (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions) software according to the high groundwater table condition of the Hokusatsu tunnel. The results present that multiple times grouting can control leakage and the rock deformation well, compared with one-time grouting condition in rock breaking and high water pressure area. The seepage force decrease around the tunnel and the displacement is controlled effectively. The pore pressure reduces inside the grouting zone using a new kind of grouting material, which is high permeability ultramicro particle cement (average particle size 1.5 μm). In the test fieldwork, the grouting scheme reduces the maximum discharge from 300 t/h to 40 t/h, and there is not obvious deformation and abnormal stress in the tunnel. The multiple times grouting method proposed in this research is verified effectively and can supply a positive experience to on-site construction. View Full-Text
Keywords: tunnel; high groundwater table; leakage control; ultramicro cement; multiple grouting; FLAC3D tunnel; high groundwater table; leakage control; ultramicro cement; multiple grouting; FLAC3D
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Gong, B.; Jiang, Y.; Okatsu, K.; Wu, X.; Teduka, J.; Aoki, K. The Seepage Control of the Tunnel Excavated in High-Pressure Water Condition Using Multiple Times Grouting Method. Processes 2018, 6, 159.

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