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Biomedicines 2018, 6(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines6020065

Utilizing Peptide Ligand GPCRs to Image and Treat Pancreatic Cancer

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Messiah College, Mechanicsburg, PA 17055, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Biomarkers and Targets in Digestive Organs)
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Abstract

It is estimated that early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) could increase long-term patient survival by as much as 30% to 40% (Seufferlein, T. et al., Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2016, 13, 74–75). There is an unmet need for reagents that can reliably identify early cancerous or precancerous lesions through various imaging modalities or could be employed to deliver anticancer treatments specifically to tumor cells. However, to date, many PDAC tumor-targeting strategies lack selectivity and are unable to discriminate between tumor and nontumor cells, causing off-target effects or unclear diagnoses. Although a variety of approaches have been taken to identify tumor-targeting reagents that can effectively direct therapeutics or imaging agents to cancer cells (Liu, D. et al., J. Controlled Release 2015, 219, 632–643), translating these reagents into clinical practice has been limited, and it remains an area open to new methodologies and reagents (O’Connor, J.P. et al., Nat. Rev. Clin. Oncol. 2017, 14, 169–186). G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are key target proteins for drug discovery and comprise a large proportion of currently marketed therapeutics, hold significant promise for tumor imaging and targeted treatment, particularly for pancreatic cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: G protein–coupled receptors; cholecystokinin; gastrin; gastrin-releasing peptide; bombesin; neurokinin; neurotensin; somatostatin G protein–coupled receptors; cholecystokinin; gastrin; gastrin-releasing peptide; bombesin; neurokinin; neurotensin; somatostatin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Matters, G.L.; Harms, J.F. Utilizing Peptide Ligand GPCRs to Image and Treat Pancreatic Cancer. Biomedicines 2018, 6, 65.

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