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Biomedicines 2017, 5(3), 55; doi:10.3390/biomedicines5030055

Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Amoxicillin on Bacterial Growth in the Presence of Dissolved Organic Carbon

Department of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, 1903 West Michigan Ave., Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
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Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract

The impact of emerging contaminants in the presence of active pharmaceutical pollutants plays an important role in the persistence and activity of environmental bacteria. This manuscript focuses on the impact of amoxicillin functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles on bacterial growth, in the presence of dissolved organic carbon (humic acid). The impact of these emerging contaminants individually and collectively on the growth profiles of model gram positive and negative bacteria was tracked for 24 h. Results indicate exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin bound iron oxide nanoparticles, in the presence of humic acid, increase bacterial growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Accelerated bacterial growth was associated with an increase in iron ions, which have been shown to influence upregulation of cellular metabolism. Though iron oxide nanoparticles are often regarded as benign, this work demonstrates the distinguishable impact of amoxicillin bound iron oxide nanoparticles in the presence of dissolved organic carbon. The results indicate differential impacts of combined contaminants on bacterial growth, having potential implications for environmental and human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: engineered nanoparticles; iron oxide nanoparticles; emerging contaminants; amoxicillin; antibiotics; humic acid; bacteria engineered nanoparticles; iron oxide nanoparticles; emerging contaminants; amoxicillin; antibiotics; humic acid; bacteria
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Current, K.M.; Dissanayake, N.M.; Obare, S.O. Effect of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Amoxicillin on Bacterial Growth in the Presence of Dissolved Organic Carbon. Biomedicines 2017, 5, 55.

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