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Chemosensors 2018, 6(3), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemosensors6030028

Honey Evaluation Using Electronic Tongues: An Overview

1
Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra, Portugal
2
CEB-Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
3
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), ESA, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
4
Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering—Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), ESA, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic nose’s, Machine Olfaction and Electronic Tongue’s)
Full-Text   |   PDF [948 KB, uploaded 19 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

Honey-rich composition in biologically active compounds makes honey a food products highly appreciated due to the nutritional and healthy properties. Food-manufacturing is very prone to different types of adulterations and fraudulent labelling making it urgent to establish accurate, fast and cost-effective analytical techniques for honey assessment. In addition to the classical techniques (e.g., physicochemical analysis, microscopy, chromatography, immunoassay, DNA metabarcoding, spectroscopy), electrochemical based-sensor devices have arisen as reliable and green techniques for food analysis including honey evaluation, allowing in-situ and on-line assessment, being a user-friendly procedure not requiring high technical expertise. In this work, the use of electronic tongues, also known as taste sensor devices, for honey authenticity and assessment is reviewed. Also, the versatility of electronic tongues to qualitative (e.g., botanical and/or geographical origin assessment as well as detection of adulteration) and quantitative (e.g., assessment of adulterants levels, determination of flavonoids levels or antibiotics and insecticides residues, flavonoids) honey analysis is shown. The review is mainly focused on the research outputs reported during the last decade aiming to demonstrate the potentialities of potentiometric and voltammetric multi-sensor devices, pointing out their main advantages and present and future challenges for becoming a practical quality analytical tool at industrial and commercial levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: electronic tongue; potentiometry; voltammetry; lab-made devices; chemometrics; honey analysis; botanical origin assessment; geographical origin evaluation; adulteration evaluation; contaminants detection electronic tongue; potentiometry; voltammetry; lab-made devices; chemometrics; honey analysis; botanical origin assessment; geographical origin evaluation; adulteration evaluation; contaminants detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Veloso, A.C.A.; Sousa, M.E.B.C.; Estevinho, L.; Dias, L.G.; Peres, A.M. Honey Evaluation Using Electronic Tongues: An Overview. Chemosensors 2018, 6, 28.

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