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Chemosensors 2017, 5(4), 30; doi:10.3390/chemosensors5040030

Microdevices for Non-Invasive Detection of Bladder Cancer

Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
BioSystems and Micromechanics (BioSyM) IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART) Centre, Singapore 138602, Singapore
Plug and Play Tech Center, Sunnyvale, CA 94043, USA
Department of Biochemistry Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
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Bladder cancer holds the record for the highest lifetime cost on a per-patient basis. This is due to high recurrence rates, which necessitate invasive and costly long-term evaluation methods such as cystoscopy and imaging. Microfluidics is emerging as an important approach to contribute to initial diagnosis and follow-up, by enabling the precise manipulation of biological samples. Specifically, microdevices have been used for the isolation of cells or genetic material from blood samples, sparking significant interest as a versatile platform for non-invasive bladder cancer detection with voided urine. In this review, we revisit the methods of bladder cancer detection and describe various types of markers currently used for evaluation. We detail cutting-edge technologies and evaluate their merits in the detection, screening, and diagnosis of bladder cancer. Advantages of microscale devices over standard methods of detection, as well as their limitations, are provided. We conclude with a discussion of criteria for guiding microdevice development that could deepen our understanding of prognoses at the level of individual patients and the underlying biology of bladder cancer development. Collectively, the development and widespread application of improved microfluidic devices for bladder cancer could drive treatment breakthroughs and establish widespread, tangible outcomes on patients’ long-term survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: microdevices; non-invasive procedures; bladder cancer; urine microdevices; non-invasive procedures; bladder cancer; urine

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tzouanas, C.; Lim, J.S.Y.; Wen, Y.; Thiery, J.P.; Khoo, B.L. Microdevices for Non-Invasive Detection of Bladder Cancer. Chemosensors 2017, 5, 30.

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