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Healthcare 2017, 5(4), 89; doi:10.3390/healthcare5040089

The Geography of the Alzheimer’s Disease Mortality in Spain: Should We Focus on Industrial Pollutants Prevention?

1
ISGlobal, Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
2
Health Inequalities Research Group, Employment Conditions Knowledge Network (GREDS-EMCONET), Department of Political and Social Sciences, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 08005 Barcelona, Spain
3
ENT Foundation, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltrú, Spain
4
Biostatistics Unit, Department of Basic Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès, 08195 Barcelona, Spain
5
Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Girona, IDIBGI, Parc Hospitalari Martí i Julià, 17190 Salt, Spain
6
Environmental Toxicology, Barcelona Institute of Biomedical Research, CSIC-IDIBAPS and CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), 08036 Barcelona, Spain
7
The Johns Hopkins University-Universitat Pompeu Fabra Public Policy Center, 08005 Barcelona, Spain
8
Grupo de Investigación Transdisciplinar sobre Transiciones Socioecológicas (GinTRANS2), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
9
Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona—Public Health Agency of Barcelona, 08023 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Population Health Management)
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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has a high worldwide prevalence but little is known about its aetiology and risk factors. Recent research suggests environmental factors might increase AD risk. We aim to describe the association between AD mortality and the presence of highly polluting industry in small areas in Spain between 1999 and 2010. We calculated AD age-adjusted Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR), stratified by sex, grouped by industrial pollution density, compared for each small area of Spain. In the small areas with the highest mortality, the SMR among women was at least 25% greater than the national average (18% in men). The distribution of AD mortality was generally similar to that of high industrial pollution (higher mortality in the north, the Mediterranean coast and in some southern areas). The risk of AD mortality among women was 140% higher (123% among men) in areas with the highest industrial density in comparison to areas without polluting industries. This study has identified a geographical pattern of small areas with higher AD mortality risk and an ecological positive association with the density of highly polluting industry. Further research is needed on the potential impact of this type of industry pollution on AD aetiology and mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; mortality; industry Alzheimer’s disease; mortality; industry
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Martínez-Solanas, È.; Vergara-Duarte, M.; Ortega Cerdà, M.; Martín-Sánchez, J.C.; Buxó, M.; Rodríguez-Farré, E.; Benach, J.; Pérez, G. The Geography of the Alzheimer’s Disease Mortality in Spain: Should We Focus on Industrial Pollutants Prevention? Healthcare 2017, 5, 89.

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