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Healthcare 2016, 4(1), 7; doi:10.3390/healthcare4010007

Building a Biopsychosocial Conceptual Framework to Explore Pressure Ulcer Pain for Hospitalized Patients

Department of Family, Community and Health System Science, University of Florida College of Nursing, P.O. BOX 100197, Gainesville, FL 32610-0197, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Tracey L. Yap and Melissa Batchelor-Murphy
Received: 28 June 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 8 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nursing Care of the Older Adult)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [882 KB, uploaded 8 January 2016]   |  


Although pressure ulcers are a prevalent condition, pain associated with pressure ulcers is not fully understood. Indeed, previous studies do not shed light on the association between pressure ulcer stages and the experience of pain. Especially, pain characteristics of suspected deep tissue injury, which is a new category that was recently added by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, are yet unknown. This is concerning because the incidence of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients has increased exponentially over the last two decades, and health care providers are struggling to ensure providing adequate care. Thus, in order to facilitate the development of effective interventions, this paper presents a conceptual framework to explore pressure ulcer pain in hospitalized patients. The concepts were derived from a biopsychosocial model of pain, and the relationships among each concept were identified through a literature review. Major propositions are presented based on the proposed conceptual framework, which integrates previous research on pressure ulcer pain, to ultimately improve understanding of pain in hospitalized patients with pressure ulcers. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopsychosocial model; pressure ulcer pain; conceptual framework; hospitalized patients biopsychosocial model; pressure ulcer pain; conceptual framework; hospitalized patients

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.; Ahn, H.; Lyon, D.E.; Stechmiller, J. Building a Biopsychosocial Conceptual Framework to Explore Pressure Ulcer Pain for Hospitalized Patients. Healthcare 2016, 4, 7.

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