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Healthcare 2016, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/healthcare4010008

Reviewing the Evidence Base for the Children and Young People Safety Thermometer (CYPST): A Mixed Studies Review

School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Birmingham Children’s Hospital Foundation NHS Trust, Steelhouse Lane, Birmingham B4 6NH, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sampath Parthasarathy
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 18 December 2015 / Accepted: 24 December 2015 / Published: 11 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Psychology in Healthcare Settings)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [506 KB, uploaded 11 January 2016]   |  


The objective was to identify evidence to support use of specific harms for the development of a children and young people’s safety thermometer (CYPST). We searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Library post-1999 for studies in pediatric settings about pain, skin integrity, extravasation injury, and use of pediatric early warning scores (PEWS). Following screening, nine relevant articles were included. Convergent synthesis methods were used drawing on thematic analysis to combine findings from studies using a range of methods (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods). A review of PEWS was identified so other studies on this issue were excluded. No relevant studies about extravasation injury were identified. The synthesized results therefore focused on pain and skin integrity. Measurement and perception of pain were complex and not always carried out according to best practice. Skin abrasions were common and mostly associated with device related injuries. The findings demonstrate a need for further work on perceptions of pain and effective communication of concerns about pain between parents and nursing staff. Strategies for reducing device-related injuries warrant further research focusing on prevention. Together with the review of PEWS, these synthesized findings support the inclusion of pain, skin integrity, and PEWS in the CYPST. View Full-Text
Keywords: pediatrics; patient safety; safety thermometer; risk assessment; mixed studies review pediatrics; patient safety; safety thermometer; risk assessment; mixed studies review

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Aston, L.; Eyre, C.; McLoughlin, M.; Shaw, R. Reviewing the Evidence Base for the Children and Young People Safety Thermometer (CYPST): A Mixed Studies Review. Healthcare 2016, 4, 8.

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