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Pharmacy, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) This study estimates the national trends in antipsychotic polypharmacy among 6- to 24-year old [...] Read more.
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Research

Open AccessArticle Pharmacy Practice and Education in the Czech Republic
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 54; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040054
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 3 October 2017 / Published: 9 October 2017
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Abstract
The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy education, practice and legislation in the European Union (EU) with the objectives of evaluating to what degree harmonisation had taken place with the EU, and producing documents on each individual EU
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The PHARMINE (“Pharmacy Education in Europe”) project studied the organisation of pharmacy education, practice and legislation in the European Union (EU) with the objectives of evaluating to what degree harmonisation had taken place with the EU, and producing documents on each individual EU member state. Part of this work was in the form of a survey of pharmacy education, practice, and legislation in the various member states. We will publish the individual member state surveys as reference documents. This paper presents the results of the PHARMINE survey on pharmacy education, training, and practice in the Czech Republic. Czech community pharmacies sell and provide advice on Rx and Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines; they also provide diagnostic services (e.g., blood pressure measurement). Pharmacists (lékárník in Czech) study for five years and graduate with a Magister (Mgr., equivalent to M.Pharm.) degree. The Mgr. diploma is the only requirement for registration as a pharmacist. Pharmacists can own and manage community pharmacies, or work as responsible pharmacists in pharmacies. All practising pharmacists must be registered with the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists. The ownership of a community pharmacy is not restricted to members of the pharmacy profession; the majority of pharmacies are organised into various pharmacy chains. There are two universities providing higher education in pharmacy in the Czech Republic: the Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, which was established in 1969, and the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences in Brno, which was established in 1991. The pharmacy curriculum is organized as a seamless, fully integrated, five-year master degree course. There is a six-month traineeship supervised by the university, which usually takes place during the fifth year. Thus, the pharmacy curriculum is organised in accordance with the EU directive on sectoral professions that lays down the imperatives for pharmacy education, training, and practice in the various member states of the EU. Currently, no specialisation courses are available at the university level. Specialisation is organised in the form of postgraduate, continuing professional development by the Czech Chamber of Pharmacists, and delivered by the Institute of Postgraduate Education for Health Professions. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Attitude of Medical and Pharmacy Students towards Research Activities: A Multicenter Approach
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 55; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040055
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social
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Aim: To assess the attitude of medical and pharmacy students in Asian and African universities towards scholarly research activities. Methods: An anonymous, cross-sectional, self-reported online survey questionnaire was administered to medical and pharmacy students studying in various Asian and African universities through social media between May and July 2016. A 68-item close-ended questionnaire consisting of Likert-scale options assessed the students’ research-specific experiences, and their attitudes towards scholarly research publications. Results: A total of 512 questionnaires were completed, with a response rate of 92% from Asia and 94% from Africa. More pharmacy students (70.8%) participated than medical students (29.2%). Overall 52.2% of the pharmacy students and 40% of medical students believed that research activities provided a means of gaining respect from their faculty members. Lack of encouragement, paucity of time, gaps in research activities and practices, and lack of research funding were some of the most common barriers acknowledged by the students. A nonparametric Mann-Whitney test showed that a statistically significant difference was observed, in that more than 80% of the pharmacy students viewed scientific writing and research activities as valuable experiences (p = 0.001) and would like to involve their co-students in scholarly research activities (p = 0.002); whereas the majority of the medical students desired to be involved more in scholarly research publications (p = 0.033). Conclusion: Pharmacy students had good attitudes towards research activities and a higher number of medical students desired to be involved more in research publications. Faculties may consider taking special research initiatives to address the barriers and improve the involvement of medical and pharmacy students in scholarly research activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
Open AccessArticle Integrating Medication Therapy Management (MTM) Services Provided by Community Pharmacists into a Community-Based Accountable Care Organization (ACO)
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 56; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040056
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 8 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: As the U.S. healthcare system evolves from fee-for-service financing to global population-based payments designed to be accountable for both quality and total cost of care, the effective and safe use of medications is gaining increased importance. The purpose of this project
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(1) Background: As the U.S. healthcare system evolves from fee-for-service financing to global population-based payments designed to be accountable for both quality and total cost of care, the effective and safe use of medications is gaining increased importance. The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of integrating medication therapy management (MTM) services provided by community pharmacists into the clinical care teams and the health information technology (HIT) infrastructure for Minnesota Medicaid recipients of a 12-county community-based accountable care organization (ACO). (2) Methods: The continuous quality improvement evaluation methodology employed in this project was the context + mechanism = outcome (CMO) model to account for the fact that programs only work insofar as they introduce promising ideas, solutions and opportunities in the appropriate social and cultural contexts. Collaborations between a 12-county ACO and 15 community pharmacies in Southwest Minnesota served as the social context for this feasibility study of MTM referrals to community pharmacists. (3) Results: All 15 community pharmacy sites were integrated into the HIT infrastructure through Direct Secure Messaging, and there were 32 recipients who received MTM services subsequent to referrals from the ACO at 5 of the 15 community pharmacies over a 1-year implementation phase. (4) Conclusion: At the conclusion of this project, an effective electronic communication and MTM referral system was activated, and consideration was given to community pharmacists providing MTM in future ACO shared savings agreements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Pharmacists in the Community Setting)
Open AccessArticle Role of Information Anxiety and Information Load on Processing of Prescription Drug Information Leaflets
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 57; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040057
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 29 September 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 16 October 2017
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Abstract
In this study, we evaluate the role of information anxiety and information load on the intention to read information from prescription drug information leaflets (PILs). These PILs were developed based on the principals of information load and consumer information processing. This was an
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In this study, we evaluate the role of information anxiety and information load on the intention to read information from prescription drug information leaflets (PILs). These PILs were developed based on the principals of information load and consumer information processing. This was an experimental prospective repeated measures study conducted in the United States where 360 (62% response rate) university students (>18 years old) participated. Participants were presented with a scenario followed by exposure to the three drug product information sources used to operationalize information load. The three sources were: (i) current practice; (ii) pre-existing one-page text only; and (iii) interventional one-page prototype PILs designed for the study. Information anxiety was measured as anxiety experienced by the individual when encountering information. The outcome variable of intention to read PILs was defined as the likelihood that the patient will read the information provided in the leaflets. A survey questionnaire was used to capture the data and the objectives were analyzed by performing a repeated measures MANOVA using SAS version 9.3. When compared to current practice and one-page text only leaflets, one-page PILs had significantly lower scores on information anxiety (p < 0.001) and information load (p < 0.001). The intention to read was highest and significantly different (p < 0.001) for PILs as compared to current practice or text only leaflets. Information anxiety and information load significantly impacted intention to read (p < 0.001). Newly developed PILs increased patient’s intention to read and can help in improving the counseling services provided by pharmacists. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of a Community Pharmacy Intervention to Improve Low Adherence Rates to Oral Diabetes Medications
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 58; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040058
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
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Abstract
For patients with diabetes, suboptimal medication adherence contributes to disease progression, complications, and increased healthcare costs. Identification of, and intervention for patient-identified reasons for nonadherence are essential to improving medication adherence. This prospective, quality improvement study was conducted at an independent community pharmacy
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For patients with diabetes, suboptimal medication adherence contributes to disease progression, complications, and increased healthcare costs. Identification of, and intervention for patient-identified reasons for nonadherence are essential to improving medication adherence. This prospective, quality improvement study was conducted at an independent community pharmacy in the Mid-West United States. Patients with a proportion of days covered (PDC) for their oral antidiabetic medications of less than 80% were contacted by telephone and interviewed by a clinical pharmacist. The interviews and corresponding adherence interventions were guided by an abbreviated version of the Drug Adherence Work-Up (DRAW©) tool that focused on oral medications for diabetes. The change in PDC 120-days post-interview was assessed to determine the change in adherence rates. Patients receiving the pharmacist-delivered adherence intervention had significantly higher 120 day PDC values which are likely to indicate more regular medication-taking at home. Almost half of study patients signed up for medication synchronization and these patients trended toward higher PDC values, although the relative difference was not statistically significant from those receiving the intervention and not opting to have their medications synchronized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Pharmacists in the Community Setting)
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Open AccessArticle ‘I Can Step outside My Comfort Zone.’
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 59; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040059
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
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Abstract
On embarking upon such a multifactorial, professional degree as Pharmacy, students often find it difficult to meld the scientific- and practice-based components of the course. In final year of the undergraduate Masters of Pharmacy degree (MPharm) within the School of Pharmacy and Life
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On embarking upon such a multifactorial, professional degree as Pharmacy, students often find it difficult to meld the scientific- and practice-based components of the course. In final year of the undergraduate Masters of Pharmacy degree (MPharm) within the School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences at Robert Gordon University (RGU), students undertake a research project within a specific area. The aims of this study were to explore the effectiveness of a novel practice based approach to a biomedical science project, to identify elements of difficulty in the process, and to explore students’ perceptions and reflections. Final year students were assigned to perform a systematic literature review working within a defined area of pharmacovigilance. Students were given individual ownership of the research question and were able to choose a topic of interest. Following the successful completion of the assignment, students were invited to explore their attitudes and views of the project and reflect on the process through a focus group using a talking wall method. The findings clearly identified a shift in mindset from predominantly negative opinions initially to an overwhelming positive viewpoint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
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Open AccessArticle Medication Reviews by a Clinical Pharmacist at an Irish University Teaching Hospital
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 60; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040060
Received: 27 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Purpose: Pharmacist-led medication reviews in hospitals have shown improvement in patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and nature of pharmacist interventions (PIs) following a medication review in an Irish teaching hospital. Methods: PIs were recorded over a
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Purpose: Pharmacist-led medication reviews in hospitals have shown improvement in patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and nature of pharmacist interventions (PIs) following a medication review in an Irish teaching hospital. Methods: PIs were recorded over a six-month period in 2015. PIs were assessed by a panel of healthcare professionals (n = 5) to estimate the potential of adverse drug events (ADEs). Descriptive statistics were used for the variables and the chi square test for independence was used to analyse for any association between the variables. Results: Of the 1216 patients (55.8% female; median age 68 years (interquartile range 24 years)) who received a medication review, 313 interventions were identified in 213 patients. 412 medicines were associated with PIs, of which drugs for obstructive airway disease (n = 82), analgesics (n = 56), and antibacterial products for systemic use (n = 50) were the most prevalent. A statistically significant association was found between PI and patient’s age ≥65 years (p = 0.000), as well as female gender (p = 0.037). A total of 60.7% of the PIs had a medium or high likelihood of causing an ADE. Conclusion: Pharmacist-led medication review in a hospital setting prevented ADEs. Patients ≥65 years of age and female patients benefited the most from the interventions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of Prescribing and Monitoring Habits for Patients Taking an Antiarrhythmic and Concomitant QTc-Prolonging Antibiotic
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 61; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040061
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Patients may intermittently require antimicrobial therapy with a QTc-prolonging antibiotic, which presents a challenge for prescribers of patients already taking a QTc-prolonging antiarrhythmic. Manufacturers recommend close monitoring for evidence of QTc-prolongation with the concomitant use of QTc-prolonging medications, but the monitoring parameters are
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Patients may intermittently require antimicrobial therapy with a QTc-prolonging antibiotic, which presents a challenge for prescribers of patients already taking a QTc-prolonging antiarrhythmic. Manufacturers recommend close monitoring for evidence of QTc-prolongation with the concomitant use of QTc-prolonging medications, but the monitoring parameters are not well-defined. Previous studies recommend a surveillance electrocardiogram (EKG) be completed both before and after the initiation of QTc-prolonging medications, but it is unknown to what degree EKGs displaying the QTc-interval are used to alter physician order entry and pharmacist order verification during concomitant therapy. A retrospective chart review was conducted between October 2015–September 2016 to assess prescribing and monitoring habits for patients taking an antiarrhythmic and a concomitant QTc-prolonging antibiotic. Of the 42 patients who received at least one dose of two QTc-prolonging agents, 36 (85.7%) received a baseline EKG, and 23 (63.8%) received a follow-up EKG. Pharmacists intervened on this drug–drug interaction and recommended follow-up EKGs only three times (8.3%) and offered alternative therapy recommendations once (2.8%). The QTc-interval was not optimally monitored in some instances for patients concomitantly receiving two QTc-prolonging agents. These results stress the importance of inter-professional communication to place an emphasis on follow-up monitoring or use of alternative therapy agents to avoid the drug–drug interaction altogether. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication in Pharmacy Practice)
Open AccessArticle Redesigning Journal Clubs to Staying Current with the Literature
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 62; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040062
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Staying current with the literature is of paramount importance to the pharmacist engaged in an evidence-based clinical practice. Given the expanding roles and responsibilities of today’s pharmacists combined with exponential growth in new medical and health sciences literature, staying current has become an
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Staying current with the literature is of paramount importance to the pharmacist engaged in an evidence-based clinical practice. Given the expanding roles and responsibilities of today’s pharmacists combined with exponential growth in new medical and health sciences literature, staying current has become an extremely daunting task. Traditional journal clubs have focused upon their role as a training vehicle for teaching critical reading skills to residents. However, schools of pharmacy are now required to provide instruction in biostatistics, research design, and interpretation. We present a paradigm shift in the traditional journal club model whereby a collection of periodicals is screened and a short synopsis of the pertinent articles is provided. The associated tasks for screening and presenting of the primary literature are shared among a group of clinicians and trainees with similar practice interests resulting in a more reasonable workload for the individual. This journal club method was effective in identifying a significant majority of articles judged to be pertinent by independent groups of clinicians in the same practice arenas. Details regarding the shared core practice and knowledge base elements, journal club format, identification of journals, and evaluation of the success of the journal club technique are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
Open AccessArticle Hospital Audit as a Useful Tool in the Process of Introducing Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD) into Hospital Pharmacy Settings—A Pilot Study
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 63; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040063
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Recently, the European Union has introduced the Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD). Additionally, in early 2016, a Delegated Act (DA) related to the FMD was published. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of external audits in the context
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Background: Recently, the European Union has introduced the Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD). Additionally, in early 2016, a Delegated Act (DA) related to the FMD was published. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of external audits in the context of implementing new regulations provided by the FMD in the secondary care environment. Methods: The external, in-person workflow audits were performed by an authentication company in three Polish hospital pharmacies. Each audit consisted of a combination of supervision (non-participant observation), secondary data analysis, and expert interviews with the use of an independently designed authorial Diagnostic Questionnaire. The questionnaire included information about hospital drug distribution procedures, data concerning drug usage, IT systems, medication order systems, the processes of medication dispensing, and the preparation and administration of hazardous drugs. Data analysis included a thorough examination of hospital documentation in regard to drug management. All data were subjected to qualitative analysis, with the aim of generating meaningful information through inductive inference. Results: Only one dispensing location in the Polish hospitals studied has the potential to be a primary authentication area. In the audited hospitals, an Automated Drug Dispensing System and unit dose were not identified during the study. Hospital wards contained an enclosed place within the department dedicated to drug storage under the direct supervision of senior nursing staff. An electronic order system was not available. In the largest center, unused medications are re-dispensed to different hospital departments, or may be sold to various institutions. Additionally, in one hospital pharmacy, pharmacists prepared parenteral nutrition and chemotherapeutic drugs for patients admitted to the hospital. Conclusions: External audits might prove beneficial in the course of introducing new regulations into everyday settings. However, such action should be provided before the final implementation of authentication services. To sum up, FMD can impact several hospital departments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Antipsychotic Polypharmacy among Children and Young Adults in Office-Based or Hospital Outpatient Department Settings
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 64; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040064
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 21 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the study was three-fold: (1) to estimate the national trends in antipsychotic (AP) polypharmacy among 6- to 24-year-old patients in the U.S.; (2) to identify frequently used AP agents and mental disorder diagnoses related to AP polypharmacy; and (3) to
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The purpose of the study was three-fold: (1) to estimate the national trends in antipsychotic (AP) polypharmacy among 6- to 24-year-old patients in the U.S.; (2) to identify frequently used AP agents and mental disorder diagnoses related to AP polypharmacy; and (3) to assess the strength of association between AP polypharmacy and patient/provider characteristics. We used publicly available ambulatory health care datasets to evaluate AP polypharmacy in office-based or hospital outpatient department settings to conduct a cross-sectional study. First, national visit rates between 2007 and 2011 were estimated using sampling weights. Second, common diagnoses and drugs used in AP polypharmacy were identified. Third, a multivariate logistic regression model was developed to assess the strength of association between AP polypharmacy and patient and provider characteristics. Between 2007 and 2011, approximately 2% of office-based or hospital outpatient department visits made by 6- to 24-year-old patients included one or more AP prescriptions. Of these visits, 5% were classified as AP polypharmacy. The most common combination of AP polypharmacy was to use two or more second-generation APs. Also, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were the two most frequent primary mental disorder diagnoses among AP polypharmacy visits. The factors associated with AP polypharmacy were: older age (young adults), black, having one or more non-AP prescriptions, and having schizophrenia or ADHD. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Barriers and Facilitators for Information Exchange during Over-The-Counter Consultations in Community Pharmacy: A Focus Group Study
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 65; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040065
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
Consumers are confident managing minor ailments through self-care, often self-medicating from a range of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines available from community pharmacies. To minimise risks, pharmacy personnel endeavour to engage in a consultation when consumers present with OTC enquiries however they find consumers resistant.
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Consumers are confident managing minor ailments through self-care, often self-medicating from a range of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines available from community pharmacies. To minimise risks, pharmacy personnel endeavour to engage in a consultation when consumers present with OTC enquiries however they find consumers resistant. The aim was to determine stakeholder perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators for information exchange during OTC consultations in community pharmacies and to understand the elicited themes in behavioural terms. Focus groups were undertaken with community pharmacist, pharmacy assistant and consumer participants. Independent duplicate analysis of transcription data was conducted using inductive and framework methods. Eight focus groups involving 60 participants were conducted. Themes that emerged indicated consumers did not understand pharmacists’ professional role, they were less likely to exchange information if asking for a specific product than if asking about symptom treatment, and they wanted privacy. Consumers were confident to self-diagnose and did not understand OTC medicine risks. Pharmacy personnel felt a duty of care to ensure consumer safety, and that with experience communication skills developed to better engage consumers in consultations. They also identified the need for privacy. Consumers need education about community pharmacists’ role and responsibilities to motivate them to engage in OTC consultations. They also require privacy when doing so. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Communication in Pharmacy Practice)
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Open AccessArticle Determinants of Hospital Pharmacists’ Job Satisfaction in Romanian Hospitals
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 66; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040066
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 12 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
Aim: The purpose of this study is to identify the level of job satisfaction among hospital pharmacists in Romania in relation to environmental, socio-demographic, and individual factors. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight hospital pharmacists were included in the research. The Job Satisfaction
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Aim: The purpose of this study is to identify the level of job satisfaction among hospital pharmacists in Romania in relation to environmental, socio-demographic, and individual factors. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight hospital pharmacists were included in the research. The Job Satisfaction Scale was used to measure the level of satisfaction with their current jobs, and the TAS-20 was used to evaluate emotional experience and awareness. Additionally, 12 items were formulated in order to identify the reasons for dissatisfaction with jobs, such as budget, number of working hours, legislation, relationships with colleagues, hospital departments, or stakeholders. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23. Results: The analyses of the data revealed a low level of satisfaction regarding the pay–promotion subscale, a high level of satisfaction with the management–interpersonal relationship dimension, and a high level of satisfaction regarding the organization–communication subscale. Seventy-four percent of subjects are dissatisfied about the annual budget, and 86.3% are not at all satisfied with present legislation. Conclusions: These results are important for hospital pharmacists and hospital management in order to focus on health policies, management, and environmental issues, with the purpose of increasing the level of satisfaction among hospital pharmacists. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitude toward Registration Trials and Clinical Research: A Survey in a Japanese University Hospital
Pharmacy 2017, 5(4), 67; doi:10.3390/pharmacy5040067
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
Clinical research plays a fundamental role in establishing new treatments. Clinical research coordinators are considered essential in clinical research, and medical professionals such as pharmacists often take on this role. Pharmacy students can be considered future candidates for this task. We used questionnaires
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Clinical research plays a fundamental role in establishing new treatments. Clinical research coordinators are considered essential in clinical research, and medical professionals such as pharmacists often take on this role. Pharmacy students can be considered future candidates for this task. We used questionnaires to survey the knowledge of and attitudes toward registration trials and clinical research of pharmacy students at Tokushima University Hospital. All pharmacy students (103) to whom questionnaires were sent responded. Almost all respondents were aware of registration trials and clinical research. More than 90% were aware of the existence of clinical research coordinators, and about half (48.6%) understood their role. In clinical research terminology, most respondents were aware of informed consent and related issues, but fewer than 20% were aware of more practical things. In total, 29.1% and 40.8% of the respondents were willing to carry out and coordinate research. These findings suggest that pharmacy students have basic knowledge of clinical research and that many students are willing to carry out and coordinate clinical research. More practical exposure to clinical research may help to strengthen their future contribution. Further studies may help to determine how to provide education on registration trials and clinical research to pharmacy students. Full article
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