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Climate 2018, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6010010

How to Design a Park and Its Surrounding Urban Morphology to Optimize the Spreading of Cool Air?

1
CNRS, Lab-STICC Laboratory UMR 6285, 56000 Vannes, France
2
CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Sciences et Techniques de la Ville, FR 2488, École Centrale de Nantes, 44000 Nantes, France
3
Cerema Ouest, 44000 Nantes, France
4
UMR CNRS AAU CRENAU, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Nantes, 44000 Nantes, France
These authors have all contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 30 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
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Abstract

Green areas induce smaller increases in the air temperature than built-up areas. They can offer a solution to mitigating the urban heat island impacts during heat waves, since the cool air generated by a park is diffused into its immediate surroundings through forced or natural convection. The purpose of this study is to characterize the effect of several variables (park size, morphology of surrounding urban area, and wind speed) on the spreading of cool air. A parametric study is performed to run computational fluid dynamics simulations. The air temperature entering the computational domain was set at 35 °C, and the 2-m high surface included within the 34 °C isotherm was defined as an indicator of cool air spreading. The effects of park shape and orientation were negligible in comparison with size effects. The number of buildings was better correlated with the cooled surface area than the typical urban parameters identified in the literature (i.e., building density, aspect ratio, or mean building height). Since the number of buildings is obviously related to the number of streets, this result suggests that the greater the number of streets around a park, the wider the area that cool air spreads. View Full-Text
Keywords: park cool island; urban cooling; urban morphology; micro-climate simulations park cool island; urban cooling; urban morphology; micro-climate simulations
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bernard, J.; Rodler, A.; Morille, B.; Zhang, X. How to Design a Park and Its Surrounding Urban Morphology to Optimize the Spreading of Cool Air? Climate 2018, 6, 10.

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