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Climate 2016, 4(4), 58; doi:10.3390/cli4040058

Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Precipitation and Temperature Variability: Evidence from Northern Iran

Department of Agricultural Management, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht 4147654919, Iran
Department of Agricultural Economics, Payame Noor University (PNU), Tehran, 19395-4697, Iran
Laboratory of Agricultural Extension & Rural Sociology, Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, School of Agriculture, Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelika Ploeger
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change on Crops, Foods and Diets)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1182 KB, uploaded 6 December 2016]   |  


Precipitation and temperature variability present significant agricultural risks worldwide. Northern Iran’s agriculture mainly depends on paddy fields, which are directly affected by precipitation and temperature variability. The main aim of this study is to explore farmers’ attitudes towards precipitation and temperature variability and their adaptation strategies in paddy fields in a typical agricultural province in northern Iran. Primary survey data were collected from a sample of 382 paddy farmers of Rasht County in Guilan Province. Data have been analyzed using both summary statistics and bivariate analysis (Pearson, Spearman, and Eta correlation coefficients). Empirical findings reveal that most paddy farmers had experienced precipitation and temperature variability and were taking measures to reduce its negative impacts on their crops. Results also indicate that farm size and household income influence farmers’ perception to precipitation and temperature variability, while availability of water resources also influence farmers’ adaptation decisions. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptation strategies; precipitation and temperature variability; Iran; paddy fields adaptation strategies; precipitation and temperature variability; Iran; paddy fields

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Allahyari, M.S.; Ghavami, S.; Daghighi Masuleh, Z.; Michailidis, A.; Nastis, S.A. Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Precipitation and Temperature Variability: Evidence from Northern Iran. Climate 2016, 4, 58.

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