Next Article in Journal
Using Sensors to Study Home Activities
Previous Article in Journal
Extended Batches Petri Nets Based System for Road Traffic Management in WSNs
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(4), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan6040031

Addressing the Issue of Routing Unfairness in Opportunistic Backhaul Networks for Collecting Sensed Data

1
Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai 81310, Malaysia
2
Fraunhofer Portugal Research Center for Assistive Information and Communication Solutions, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
3
Institute of Informatics, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia 74690-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 30 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 9 December 2017

Abstract

Widely deploying sensors in the environment and embedding them in physical objects is a crucial step towards realizing smart and sustainable cities. To cope with rising resource demands and limited budgets, opportunistic networks (OppNets) offer a scalable backhaul option for collecting delay-tolerant data from sensors to gateways in order to enable efficient urban operations and services. While pervasive devices such as smartphones and tablets contribute significantly to the scalability of OppNets, closely following human movement patterns and social structure introduces network characteristics that pose routing challenges. Our study on the impact of these characteristics reveals that existing routing protocols subject a key set of devices to higher resource consumption, to which their users may respond by withdrawing participation. Unfortunately, existing solutions addressing this unfairness do not guarantee achievable throughput since they are not specifically designed for sensed data collection scenarios. Based on concepts derived from the study, we suggest design guidelines for adapting applicable routing protocols to sensed data collection scenarios. We also follow our design guidelines to propose the Fair Locality Aware Routing (FLARoute) technique. Evaluating FLARoute within an existing routing protocol confirms improved fairness and throughput under conditions that compromise the performance of existing solutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: opportunistic networks; delay tolerant data; sensed data collection; fair routing; wireless sensors; Smart City; Internet of Things; smartphones opportunistic networks; delay tolerant data; sensed data collection; fair routing; wireless sensors; Smart City; Internet of Things; smartphones
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Amah, T.E.; Kamat, M.; Abu Bakar, K.; Abali, A.M.; Moreira, W.; Oliveira-Jr, A. Addressing the Issue of Routing Unfairness in Opportunistic Backhaul Networks for Collecting Sensed Data. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6, 31.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. EISSN 2224-2708 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top