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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Energy Efficient Hardware and Improved Cluster-Tree Topology for Lifetime Prolongation in ZigBee Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(4), 22; doi:10.3390/jsan6040022
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 21 September 2017 / Published: 26 September 2017
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Abstract
In wireless sensor networks, building energy-efficient systems is one of the major challenges. In such networks, nodes are usually supplied by low power and small batteries. Many factors are involved in the energy consumption, and this issue may be considered as a cross-layer
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In wireless sensor networks, building energy-efficient systems is one of the major challenges. In such networks, nodes are usually supplied by low power and small batteries. Many factors are involved in the energy consumption, and this issue may be considered as a cross-layer problem, from the hardware architecture to the application layer. This paper aims at presenting a hybrid solution for sensor networks based on two main aspects. The first one is the hardware architecture, where we present a prototype of a sensor node we designed. This node proved its efficiency in terms of energy consumption. The second aspect is related to the topology construction and presents a new topology control algorithm based on graph computing. Thus, our system consists of a real indoor application for temperature and humidity monitoring, applicable to home automation or industrial monitoring. We performed the experiments using a set of sensor nodes deployed over a building and proved the efficiency of the system in terms of energy consumption, network lifetime and data delivery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle ABORt: Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for High Data Rate Multichannel WSNs
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(4), 23; doi:10.3390/jsan6040023
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract
The ease of deployment and the auto-configuration capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) make them very attractive in different domains like environmental, home automation or heath care applications. The use of multichannel communications in WSNs helps to improve the overall performance of the
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The ease of deployment and the auto-configuration capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) make them very attractive in different domains like environmental, home automation or heath care applications. The use of multichannel communications in WSNs helps to improve the overall performance of the network. However, in heavy traffic scenarios, routing protocols should be adapted to allow load balancing and to avoid losing data packets due to congestion and queue overflow. In this paper, we present an Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing (ABORt) protocol designed for high data rate multichannel WSNs. It is a low overhead protocol that does not rely on synchronization for control traffic exchange during the operational phase of the network. ABORt is an opportunistic protocol that relies on link layer acknowledgements to disseminate routing metrics, which helps to reduce overhead. The performance of ABORt is evaluated using the Cooja simulator and the obtained results show that ABORt has a high packet delivery ratio with reduced packet end-to-end delay compared to two single channel routing protocols and two multichannel routing protocols that use number of hops and expected transmission count as routing metrics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey on Algorithms, Measurement Techniques, Applications and Challenges
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(4), 24; doi:10.3390/jsan6040024
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that has developed significant research interest among academia and research community. Wireless sensor network is formed by a large number of tiny, low energy, limited processing capability and low-cost sensors
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Localization is an important aspect in the field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) that has developed significant research interest among academia and research community. Wireless sensor network is formed by a large number of tiny, low energy, limited processing capability and low-cost sensors that communicate with each other in ad-hoc fashion. The task of determining physical coordinates of sensor nodes in WSNs is known as localization or positioning and is a key factor in today’s communication systems to estimate the place of origin of events. As the requirement of the positioning accuracy for different applications varies, different localization methods are used in different applications and there are several challenges in some special scenarios such as forest fire detection. In this paper, we survey different measurement techniques and strategies for range based and range free localization with an emphasis on the latter. Further, we discuss different localization-based applications, where the estimation of the location information is crucial. Finally, a comprehensive discussion of the challenges such as accuracy, cost, complexity, and scalability are given. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Methods in the Mobile Cloud Offloading Paradigm
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(4), 25; doi:10.3390/jsan6040025
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Mobile cloud computing (MCC) is becoming a popular mobile technology that aims to augment local resources of mobile devices, such as energy, computing, and storage, by using available cloud services and functionalities. The offloading process is one of the techniques used in MCC
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Mobile cloud computing (MCC) is becoming a popular mobile technology that aims to augment local resources of mobile devices, such as energy, computing, and storage, by using available cloud services and functionalities. The offloading process is one of the techniques used in MCC to enhance the capabilities of mobile devices by moving mobile data and computation-intensive operations to cloud platforms. Several techniques have been proposed to perform and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the offloading process, such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). MCDA is a well-known concept that aims to select the best solution among several alternatives by evaluating multiple conflicting criteria, explicitly in decision making. However, as there are a variety of platforms and technologies in mobile cloud computing, it is still challenging for the offloading process to reach a satisfactory quality of service from the perspective of customers’ computational service requests. Thus, in this paper, we conduct a literature review that leads to a better understanding of the usability of the MCDA methods in the offloading operation that is strongly reliant on the mobile environment, network operators, and cloud services. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges and opportunities of these MCDA techniques for offloading research in mobile cloud computing. Finally, we recommend a set of future research directions in MCDA used for the mobile cloud offloading process. Full article
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