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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 6, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 4; doi:10.3390/jsan6020004
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate
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Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rechargeable Sensor Networks: Technology, Protocols, and Algorithms)
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Open AccessArticle Secure and Connected Wearable Intelligence for Content Delivery at a Mass Event: A Case Study
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 5; doi:10.3390/jsan6020005
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 22 May 2017
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Abstract
Presently, smart and connected wearable systems, such as on-body sensors and head-mounted displays, as well as other small form factor but powerful personal computers are rapidly pervading all areas of our life. Motivated by the opportunities that next-generation wearable intelligence is expected to
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Presently, smart and connected wearable systems, such as on-body sensors and head-mounted displays, as well as other small form factor but powerful personal computers are rapidly pervading all areas of our life. Motivated by the opportunities that next-generation wearable intelligence is expected to provide, the goal of this work is to build a comprehensive understanding around some of the user-centric security and trust aspects of the emerging wearable and close-to-body wireless systems operating in mass events and under heterogeneous conditions. The paper thus intends to bring the attention of the research community to this emerging paradigm and discuss the pressing security and connectivity challenges within a popular consumer context. Our selected target scenario is that of a sports match, where wearable-equipped users may receive their preferred data over various radio access protocols. We also propose an authentication framework that allows for delivery of the desired content securely within the considered ecosystem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Relayer-Enabled Retransmission Scheduling in 802.15.4e LLDN—Exploring a Reinforcement Learning Approach
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 6; doi:10.3390/jsan6020006
Received: 7 April 2017 / Revised: 20 May 2017 / Accepted: 31 May 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
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Abstract
We consider the scheduling of retransmissions in the low-latency deterministic network (LLDN) extension to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We propose a number of retransmission schemes with varying degrees of required changes to the LLDN specification. In particular, we propose a retransmission scheme that
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We consider the scheduling of retransmissions in the low-latency deterministic network (LLDN) extension to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We propose a number of retransmission schemes with varying degrees of required changes to the LLDN specification. In particular, we propose a retransmission scheme that uses cooperative relayers and where the best relayer for a source node is learned using a reinforcement-learning method. The method allows for adapting relayer selections in the face of time-varying channels. Our results show that the relayer-based methods achieve a much better reliability over the other methods, both over static (but unknown) and over time-varying channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Evaluation of the Reliability of LoRa Long-Range Low-Power Wireless Communication
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 7; doi:10.3390/jsan6020007
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
Recent technological innovations allow compact radios to transmit over long distances with minimal energy consumption and could drastically affect the way Internet of Things (IoT) technologies communicate in the near future. By extending the communication range of links, it is indeed possible to
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Recent technological innovations allow compact radios to transmit over long distances with minimal energy consumption and could drastically affect the way Internet of Things (IoT) technologies communicate in the near future. By extending the communication range of links, it is indeed possible to reduce the network diameter to a point that each node can communicate with almost every other node in the network directly. This drastically simplifies communication, removing the need of routing, and significantly reduces the overhead of data collection. Long-range low-power wireless technology, however, is still at its infancy, and it is yet unclear (i) whether it is sufficiently reliable to complement existing short-range and cellular technologies and (ii) which radio settings can sustain a high delivery rate while maximizing energy-efficiency. To shed light on this matter, this paper presents an extensive experimental study of the reliability of LoRa , one of the most promising long-range low-power wireless technologies to date. We focus our evaluation on the impact of physical layer settings on the effective data rate and energy efficiency of communications. Our results show that it is often not worth tuning parameters, thereby reducing the data rate in order to maximize the probability of successful reception, especially on links at the edge of their communication range. Furthermore, we study the impact of environmental factors on the performance of LoRa, and show that higher temperatures significantly decrease the received signal strength and may drastically affect packet reception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Estimating the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network Nodes through the Use of Embedded Analytical Battery Models
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 8; doi:10.3390/jsan6020008
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract
The operation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is subject to multiple constraints, among which one of the most critical is available energy. Sensor nodes are typically powered by electrochemical batteries. The stored energy in battery devices is easily influenced by the operating temperature
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The operation of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is subject to multiple constraints, among which one of the most critical is available energy. Sensor nodes are typically powered by electrochemical batteries. The stored energy in battery devices is easily influenced by the operating temperature and the discharge current values. Therefore, it becomes difficult to estimate their voltage/charge behavior over time, which are relevant variables for the implementation of energy-aware policies. Nowadays, there are hardware and/or software approaches that can provide information about the battery operating conditions. However, this type of hardware-based approach increases the battery production cost, which may impair its use for sensor node implementations. The objective of this work is to propose a software-based approach to estimate both the state of charge and the voltage of batteries inWSN nodes based on the use of a temperature-dependent analytical battery model. The achieved results demonstrate the feasibility of using embedded analytical battery models to estimate the lifetime of batteries, without affecting the tasks performed by the WSN nodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle An SVM-Based Method for Classification of External Interference in Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2017, 6(2), 9; doi:10.3390/jsan6020009
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 16 June 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, the adoption of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSANs) has greatly increased. However, the time-critical performance of IWSANs is considerably affected by external sources of interference. In particular, when an IEEE 802.11 network is coexisting in the same environment,
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In recent years, the adoption of industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSANs) has greatly increased. However, the time-critical performance of IWSANs is considerably affected by external sources of interference. In particular, when an IEEE 802.11 network is coexisting in the same environment, a significant drop in communication reliability is observed. This, in turn, represents one of the main challenges for a wide-scale adoption of IWSAN. Interference classification through spectrum sensing is a possible step towards interference mitigation, but the long sampling window required by many of the approaches in the literature undermines their run-time applicability in time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH)-based IWSAN. Aiming at minimizing both the sensing time and the memory footprint of the collected samples, a centralized interference classifier based on support vector machines (SVMs) is introduced in this article. The proposed mechanism, tested with sample traces collected in industrial scenarios, enables the classification of interference from IEEE 802.11 networks and microwave ovens, while ensuring high classification accuracy with a sensing duration below 300 ms. In addition, the obtained results show that the fast classification together with a contained sampling frequency ensure the suitability of the method for TSCH-based IWSAN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue QoS in Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks and Systems)
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