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Plants 2017, 6(4), 57; doi:10.3390/plants6040057

Assembly of the Cutin Polyester: From Cells to Extracellular Cell Walls

INRA, Biopolymers Interactions Assemblies Research unit, La Géraudière, 44316 Nantes Cedex 3, France
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Received: 26 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Plant Cuticle)
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Abstract

Cuticular matrices covering aerial plant organs or delimiting compartments in these organs are composed of an insoluble hydrophobic polymer of high molecular mass, i.e., cutin, that encompass some cell wall polysaccharides and is filled by waxes. Cutin is a polyester of hydroxy and-or epoxy fatty acids including a low amount of glycerol. Screening of Arabidopsis and more recently of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutants allowed the delineation of the metabolic pathway involved in the formation of cutin monomers, as well as their translocation in the apoplast. Furthermore, these studies identified an extracellular enzyme involved in the polymerization of these monomers, i.e., cutin synthase 1 (CUS1), an acyl transferase of the GDSL lipase protein family. By comparing the structure of tomato fruit cutins from wild type and down-regulated CUS1 mutants, as well as with the CUS1-catalyzed formation of oligomers in vitro, hypothetical models can be elaborated on the polymerization of cutins. The polymorphism of the GDSL-lipase family raises a number of questions concerning the function of the different isoforms in relation with the formation of a composite material, the cuticle, containing entangled hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, i.e., polysaccharides and cutin, and plasticizers, i.e., waxes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cutin; polysaccharides; polyester; cutin synthase; GDSL-lipase cutin; polysaccharides; polyester; cutin synthase; GDSL-lipase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bakan, B.; Marion, D. Assembly of the Cutin Polyester: From Cells to Extracellular Cell Walls. Plants 2017, 6, 57.

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