Next Article in Journal
Effects of Silicon Amendment on Soilborne and Fruit Diseases of Avocado
Next Article in Special Issue
An Investigation of the Antioxidant Capacity in Extracts from Moringa oleifera Plants Grown in Jamaica
Previous Article in Journal
Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative Evaluation of Polyphenol Contents and Antioxidant Activities between Ethanol Extracts of Vitex negundo and Vitex trifolia L. Leaves by Different Methods
Article Menu
Issue 4 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Plants 2017, 6(4), 50; doi:10.3390/plants6040050

Proanthocyanidin Characterization, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Three Plants Commonly Used in Traditional Medicine in Costa Rica: Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd.

1
Department of Chemistry, University of Costa Rica (UCR), Rodrigo Facio Campus, San Pedro Montes Oca, San Jose 2060, Costa Rica
2
Department of Biology, Technological University of Costa Rica (TEC), Cartago 7050, Costa Rica
3
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Costa Rica (UCR), Rodrigo Facio Campus, San Pedro Montes Oca, San Jose 2060, Costa Rica
4
Department of Biology, University of Costa Rica (UCR), Rodrigo Facio Campus, San Pedro Montes Oca, San Jose 2060, Costa Rica
5
Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC-UAM), C/Nicolas Cabrera 9, 28049 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 15 October 2017 / Published: 19 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Natural Product Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [791 KB, uploaded 19 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

The phenolic composition of aerial parts from Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd., species commonly used in Costa Rica as traditional medicines, was studied using UPLC-ESI-TQ-MS on enriched-phenolic extracts. Comparatively, higher values of total phenolic content (TPC), as measured by the Folin-Ciocalteau method, were observed for P. niruri extracts (328.8 gallic acid equivalents/g) than for S. reticulata (79.30 gallic acid equivalents/g) whereas P. alliaceae extract showed the lowest value (13.45 gallic acid equivalents/g). A total of 20 phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins were identified in the extracts, including hydroxybenzoic acids (benzoic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, prochatechuic, salicylic, syringic and vanillic acids); hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acids); and flavan-3-ols monomers [(+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin)]. Regarding proanthocyanidin oligomers, five procyanidin dimers (B1, B2, B3, B4, and B5) and one trimer (T2) are reported for the first time in P. niruri, as well as two propelargonidin dimers in S. reticulata. Additionally, P. niruri showed the highest antioxidant DPPH and ORAC values (IC50 of 6.4 μg/mL and 6.5 mmol TE/g respectively), followed by S. reticulata (IC50 of 72.9 μg/mL and 2.68 mmol TE/g respectively) and P. alliaceae extract (IC50 >1000 μg/mL and 1.32 mmol TE/g respectively). Finally, cytotoxicity and selectivity on gastric AGS and colon SW20 adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated and the best values were also found for P. niruri (SI = 2.8), followed by S. reticulata (SI = 2.5). Therefore, these results suggest that extracts containing higher proanthocyanidin content also show higher bioactivities. Significant positive correlation was found between TPC and ORAC (R2 = 0.996) as well as between phenolic content as measured by UPLC-DAD and ORAC (R2 = 0.990). These findings show evidence for the first time of the diversity of phenolic acids in P. alliaceae and S. reticulata, and the presence of proanthocyanidins as minor components in latter species. Of particular relevance is the occurrence of proanthocyanidin oligomers in phenolic extracts from P. niruri and their potential bioactivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: P. alliaceae; P. niruri; S. reticulata; UPLC; TQ-ESI-MS; proanthocyanidins; mass spectrometry; antioxidant; cytotoxicity P. alliaceae; P. niruri; S. reticulata; UPLC; TQ-ESI-MS; proanthocyanidins; mass spectrometry; antioxidant; cytotoxicity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Navarro, M.; Moreira, I.; Arnaez, E.; Quesada, S.; Azofeifa, G.; Alvarado, D.; Monagas, M.J. Proanthocyanidin Characterization, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Three Plants Commonly Used in Traditional Medicine in Costa Rica: Petiveria alliaceae L., Phyllanthus niruri L. and Senna reticulata Willd.. Plants 2017, 6, 50.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top