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Plants 2017, 6(2), 18; doi:10.3390/plants6020018

Effect of Gamma Irradiation on 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline Content, GABA Content and Volatile Compounds of Germinated Rice (Thai Upland Rice)

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathum Thani 12110, Thailand
2
The Center for Scientific and Technological Equipment, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand
3
Division of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Mueang, Phetchabun 67000, Thailand
4
Division of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Phetchabun Rajabhat University, Mueang, Phetchabun 67000, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Milan S. Stankovic
Received: 18 December 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract

Aroma intensity in rice is related to the level of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). The accumulation of 2AP in rice has been synthesized via l-proline metabolism by inactive betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme (BADH2), which activates 2AP accumulation. Meanwhile, active BADH2 inhibits 2AP accumulation but activates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation. The improvement of 2AP content in rice has been reported under certain conditions, such as high salinity, water treatment, and reduction of high intensity solar exposure. In this study, we conducted the effects of gamma irradiation on 2AP content, GABA content and volatile compounds of germinated rice (Thai upland rice). Our results showed that the GABA content was highest when rice seeds germinated within a 24-h. The 2AP content of irradiated rice (germinated within a 24-h duration) was higher than non-irradiated rice for all gamma doses, particularly at 20 Gy, which showed a 23-fold higher level of 2AP than non-irradiated rice. On the other hand, the reduction of the GABA content of irradiated rice was caused by an increase in the gamma dose. At 300 Gy, irradiated rice had a GABA content approximately 2.6-fold lower than non-irradiated rice. Moreover, we observed that a reduction of volatile compounds occurred when increasing gamma dose. However, some volatile compounds appeared in the irradiated rice at gamma doses of 60 Gy, 80 Gy, 100 Gy and 300 Gy. Furthermore, we observed that the level of Octanal, which is the compound most related to aroma intensity, of irradiated rice was stronger than that of non-irradiated rice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that 2AP and GABA contents are sensitive to gamma irradiation conditions. Moreover, the results indicate that the gamma irradiation technique can be used to improve the aroma intensity of rice. View Full-Text
Keywords: gamma irradiation; GABA; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline; volatiles compounds; Thai upland rice gamma irradiation; GABA; 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline; volatiles compounds; Thai upland rice
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Sansenya, S.; Hua, Y.; Chumanee, S.; Phasai, K.; Sricheewin, C. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline Content, GABA Content and Volatile Compounds of Germinated Rice (Thai Upland Rice). Plants 2017, 6, 18.

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